Joseph Smith Documents from April 1834 through September 1835

On 2 May 1835, Joseph Smith stood before a “grand council” of church leaders and “moved that [they] never give up the struggle for , even until Death. or until Zion is Redeemed.” Those in attendance unanimously supported Smith’s resolution “with apparent deep feeling.” The expulsion of the Saints from , Missouri, in late 1833 had disrupted the church’s efforts to build the city of Zion in preparation for the second coming of Jesus Christ. Between April 1834 and September 1835, the time period covered by this volume of The Joseph Smith Papers, the redemption of Zion—or the reclaiming of church members’ lands in Jackson County—was a paramount concern for Smith and other church leaders.
Many of the ninety-three documents in this volume touch in some way on the redemption of Zion. They highlight the great importance that Joseph Smith and others placed on returning the Saints to their lands and reveal connections between this endeavor and other simultaneous efforts, such as the construction of the , or temple, in , Ohio. Other documents highlight the development of new leadership positions in the church—which created a more complex administrative structure—and demonstrate the importance that Joseph Smith placed on providing blessings to the new leaders and those who sacrificed time and money to help redeem Zion. Still other documents show the great efforts that Joseph Smith and other church leaders made to publish a compilation of Smith’s revelations, called the Doctrine and Covenants, in 1835. Some documents indicate discord that existed in Joseph Smith’s life, particularly in relation to individuals both inside and outside the church who criticized his leadership and religious teachings. Together the documents provide insights into the development of the church and into characteristics of Joseph Smith as a husband, father, and leader of a growing religious movement.
During the time period of this volume, Joseph Smith made his home in , where he had been living since September 1832. Aside from an expedition to between May and July 1834 and brief trips to and to other locations in , Smith spent most of his time between April 1834 and September 1835 in Kirtland. After a rapid influx of church members in 1834 and 1835, Kirtland was home to around one thousand Latter-day Saints. The other major concentration of Saints was in , Missouri, where most of the approximately one thousand Saints driven from had fled. Church members also lived in branches scattered across much of the northeastern and . After a months-long preaching effort in the eastern United States in 1835, , one of the church’s bishops, noted that he had traveled “about two thousand miles” and “visited about twenty five churches whose aggregate number is about seven hundred.”
To help administer the church outside of , Joseph Smith corresponded frequently with church members, especially those in . In 1834 and 1835, much of his correspondence dealt with how to redeem Zion. After citizens forced church members from the county in early November 1833, revelations instructed Joseph Smith and the church on how to regain their land. A December 1833 revelation outlined a plan for the redemption of Zion through a parable of a lord who had lost his vineyard to his enemies. The lord instructed a servant to recruit “wariors” who would “break down the walls of mine enemies th[r]ow down their tower and scatte[r] their watchmen.” In January 1834, church leaders sent copies of this revelation to Missouri governor and circulated the revelation among church members.
In late February 1834, and arrived in , having been sent by the Saints “to counsel with President Smith and the Church at Kirtland, and take some measures for the relief or restoration of the people thus plundered and driven from their homes.” On 24 February 1834, the two reported to the Kirtland high council on the situation in Missouri, asking “when, how and by what means Zion was to be redeemed from our enemies.” Joseph Smith then declared his intention of “going to Zion to assist in redeeming it.” The council nominated him as the “Commander in Chief of the Armies of Israel,” and he subsequently called for volunteers to go with him. A revelation dictated by Smith the same day provides some clarification on the purpose of the expedition. The revelation declared Smith to be the servant mentioned in the parable of the lord of the vineyard and instructed him and others to recruit up to five hundred men to go to Zion. They were told to reclaim the lands purchased in and the vicinity and to provide protection against any “enemies” who sought to drive the Saints from the “goodly land.” Joseph Smith was to lead the expedition “like as Moses led the children of Israel,” and God’s presence and angels would go before them.
Almost immediately after the dictation of this revelation, eight men, including Joseph Smith, traveled to and , seeking recruits and donations for the expedition and telling those who were interested to meet “in Reddy for Zion the first of May.” As Joseph Smith and the others made these preparations, church members in were taking their own steps to try to regain their property, though without success. They petitioned President Andrew Jackson and Governor to provide military forces to protect the Saints and escort them back to their lands. secretary of war , replying on behalf of Jackson, declared that the federal government could not use military force to uphold state laws unless the governor requested such assistance.
According to attorney general Robert Wells, initially showed some inclination to call up the state militia to protect the Saints. In February 1834, Dunklin ordered a militia to guard Mormon witnesses who wanted to testify before a grand jury about the deprivations they had suffered. At that time, he also told state militia officer that some church members might “seek the opportunity . . . to return in safety to their late homes in Jackson County” under the militia’s guard. If so, Dunklin stated that Atchison and the militia were to comply with their requests. Perhaps because of the stiff opposition still existing in Jackson County, few Saints sought this protection, and by April 1834, Dunklin told Missouri church leaders that “the laws, both civil and Military, seem deficient in affording your society proper protection.” Church members still held out hope, however, that Dunklin would provide a military force to escort them back to their lands at a later date.
On 5 May 1834, Joseph Smith began his march from to with about one hundred men, far fewer than the five hundred specified by the revelation. The group joined an advance contingent in , Ohio, on 6 May and was supplemented in June by forces recruited by and from . They gained other recruits as they traveled west; the group eventually numbered more than two hundred men, around twelve women, and about ten children. The expedition, called the and later Zion’s Camp, was organized into companies of twelve, each led by a captain. The camp was funded by money consecrated by the camp’s members and donations from other church members. The goals of the camp were clear: the group was to march to Missouri and wait for to muster a portion of the state militia, which would then escort the Saints back into . After the militia was discharged, the volunteers were to remain in Missouri, protect the Saints from any future attacks, and help plant crops. They were also to carry “a small supply of money” with which to purchase food "till grain [could] be raised.” Meanwhile, church members elsewhere were counseled to migrate to Missouri to strengthen the church there. Under no circumstances were church members to initiate violence, but those going to Missouri were told to carry “sufficient weapons to defend yourselves in case of an attack.”
The Camp of Israel traveled through , , and before arriving in in June 1834. Its march alarmed many residents of Missouri, who believed the group was coming to retake its property “by force of arms. Western Missouri citizens mobilized and threatened that much blood would be shed if the camp came into Jackson County. The camp’s approach also led a contingent of citizens from Jackson County—with ’s blessing—to begin negotiations with church leaders in Missouri to resolve issues regarding the Saints’ lands. Dunklin’s desire to finish these negotiations before calling out the state militia, coupled with the uproar caused by the camp’s approach, led to a reconsideration of the camp’s intentions. On 22 June 1834, a revelation authorized the camp to disband. The revelation stated that the church must “wait for a little season for the redemption of Zion,” in part because church members outside of Missouri had not sufficiently heeded the call to support the Camp of Israel or to purchase lands and move to Missouri. The revelation also declared that Zion would not be redeemed until the elders of the church were “endowed with power from on high” and until God’s people had been “taught more perfectly, and have experience and know more perfectly concerning their duty.” In accordance with these instructions, Joseph Smith began to disband the Camp of Israel, a process hastened by an outbreak of cholera among the group. Some saw the outbreak as God’s punishment for discord that existed in the camp; others believed it occurred because some camp members complained about not being able to exact revenge on the citizens of Jackson County. By the time the outbreak ceased, thirteen camp members had died, along with two other Missouri Saints.
With the redemption of Zion deferred, Joseph Smith returned to and focused on fulfilling the directives outlined in the June 1834 revelation. The endowment of power promised in the revelation was to be administered in the that was then being constructed in Kirtland. In winter 1834–1835, church leaders also began an Elders School, replacing the original , as well as a grammar school. In these schools, individuals were instructed in both spiritual and secular matters in preparation for a large missionary effort that occurred in spring and summer 1835.
In addition to addressing the directives of the June 1834 revelation, Joseph Smith and other church leaders began an effort to publish his revelations. In September 1834, Joseph Smith, , , and were appointed as a committee to compile a book containing items from “the bible, book of mormon, and the revelations which have been given to the church up to this date.” Although the final format of the book, called the Doctrine and Covenants, did not include excerpts from the Bible or the Book of Mormon, the book was necessary in part because the printing of another compilation of Smith’s revelations—the Book of Commandments—had been interrupted in July 1833 when a mob in , Missouri, destroyed the church’s printing office. By February 1835, when the committee composed a preface to the Doctrine and Covenants, the plan for the book’s contents had changed; the committee decided to publish only Joseph Smith’s revelations and seven theological lectures on faith given at the Elders School. In August 1835, a general assembly of the church approved the contents of the book, which, in the words of , would teach the Saints “their duty.” The preface of the volume similarly states that the book would provide the world with “the faith and principles” of the church. The Doctrine and Covenants was available for purchase by September 1835.
Despite the importance placed on printing the Doctrine and Covenants and constructing the , funding these projects proved difficult, and in the months covered in this volume, Joseph Smith and the church faced severe financial problems. A March 1832 revelation had mandated the creation of the as an administrative body responsible for coordinating the church’s mercantile and publishing endeavors so that profits gained from one effort could be used to fund another and so that those in the firm could be compensated for their work in the church. Any funds remaining were to go into the church’s storehouse to help the poor. In reality, though, Joseph Smith and other members of the firm faced substantial debt as a result of the church’s printing endeavors and their efforts to stock the church in and . The expulsion of the Saints from exacerbated matters, as it meant that the church no longer possessed the and storehouse there but still owed money on some of the goods. Purchasing land in for the House of the Lord was also costly, and , the bishop in Kirtland and a member of the United Firm, assumed the debt on that land in accordance with instructions given in a June 1833 revelation. This made Whitney responsible for two payments of $1,500 each in 1834 and 1835. Along with charges for new equipment for a in Kirtland and the cost of materials to construct the House of the Lord, these debts placed the United Firm in financial turmoil by April 1834. Accordingly, members of the firm decided that it “should be desolvd,” and an April 1834 revelation reorganized the firm, allocating specific properties as to members of the firm in Kirtland. Although profits from managing the stewardships and from publishing church materials were to be placed in a treasury to benefit the firm, it appears that the firm effectively ceased to function after this time.
Because of these financial struggles, Joseph Smith expressed much gratitude whenever church members donated or loaned money to him or the church. In November 1834, for example, a group of Saints from , New York, loaned him $430. The following day, he and expressed thanks to God “for the relief which the Lord had lately sent” and covenanted with God to “give a tenth, to be bestowed upon the poor in his church, or as he shall command” of any funds they obtained after their debts were paid off.
Fund-raising efforts were similarly important, and in spring and summer 1835, various individuals were assigned to collect donations for the church. and were to obtain funds for the construction of the ; and were to solicit donations to help impoverished church members in ; and the newly called Twelve Apostles were assigned to petition the Saints for funds for temple construction, the redemption of Zion, and the publication of the Doctrine and Covenants. Joseph Smith sent his own letter to church members, stating that the church needed “all the means or money” members could provide so the church could publish the Doctrine and Covenants and his revision of the Bible—a project which he had completed in 1833 and that involved revising, clarifying, and augmenting the text of the King James Bible. The need for money was so great that when failed to follow through with a covenant he had made to provide a loan to the church, Bosley’s church membership was revoked. Although records are unclear as to how much money the church received from donations, the church continued to build the House of the Lord and published the Doctrine and Covenants in 1835. The ability to proceed on these projects, however, probably had more to do with loans and goods received on credit than it did with donations.
Meanwhile, the governing bodies of the church continued to develop. Joseph Smith had established the high council in February 1834 “for the purpose of settleing important difficulties which might arise in the church, which could not be settled by the Church, or the bishop’s council to the satisfaction of the parties.” The high council also functioned as an administrative body that dealt with church business. The presidency of the high priesthood—Joseph Smith, , and —served as the presidency of the Kirtland high council. After the Camp of Israel was disbanded in , church leaders also organized a high council for the Saints in in July 1834. , , and were appointed as the presidency of the Missouri high council, with David Whitmer designated as “the President of the Church in Zion.” According to Smith, organizing the Missouri high council “had accomplished the great work which the Lord had laid before him” and God could then make known his will “on all importent occasions in the building up of Zion.”
The high council’s authority to govern the administrative and disciplinary affairs of the Saints in was made explicitly clear in summer 1835 after , , , and ten high counselors left Missouri to proselytize, “assist in gathering up the strength of the Lord’s house,” and receive an endowment of power in . Although these departures left the Saints in essentially leaderless, attempts by other church officers in Missouri to regulate Zion’s affairs were denounced by the church presidency in Kirtland. “The elders in Zion or in her immediate region have no authority, nor right to medelle [meddle] with her [Zion’s] affairs,” a June 1835 letter stated. Two months later, the presidency again declared that church members were to “let the high counsel which is appointed of God and ordained for that purpose, make and regulate all the affairs of Zion,” even if most high counselors were absent. As Phelps told his wife, , “The three Presidents of Zion act for her good, whether in Zion, Kirtland, or , and have a right to assist in regulating the affairs of her stakes.”
Additional changes to church organization came in December 1834 when was appointed as of the church, responsible for giving blessings to his family and “the fatherless” and “securing the blessings of the Lord unto them and their posterity.” That same month, , , and Joseph Smith Sr. were appointed to the , with Cowdery designated as the first assistant president. After the presidency of the high council came to in 1834 and 1835, its members sometimes convened with the presidency of the high priesthood, forming a “high council of the Presidency.”
New priesthood offices, specifically those of and , were also established in 1835. In February, Joseph Smith convened a meeting of the participants of the Camp of Israel, stating that God had shown him in a vision that it was time for “those who went to Zion, with a determination to lay down their lives, if necessary,” to “be ordained to the ministry and go forth to prune the vineyard for the last time.” Following direction first given in a June 1829 revelation, Joseph Smith then asked the three witnesses of the Book of Mormon—, , and —“to choose twelve men from the church as Apostles to go to all nations, kindred toungs and people.” Eight of the designated apostles had participated in the Camp of Israel expedition. After being called and , the Twelve Apostles were assigned to hold conferences throughout the eastern and in summer 1835. Smith and the presidency of the high priesthood also began appointing other individuals to the office of seventy; these men were also given the responsibility of preaching. All of the seventies appointed at this time had gone to with the Camp of Israel.
With these new offices in place, Joseph Smith provided instruction about how they fit into the larger church administration. In a February 1835 meeting, he told the Twelve Apostles that they were a “traveling high council, who are to preside over all the churches of the Saints among the Gentiles, where there is no presidency established.” Sometime in spring 1835, a more comprehensive “Instruction on Priesthood” was prepared by Smith, probably with the assistance of ; it was later included in the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants. Drawing heavily on a November 1831 revelation, this instruction outlined the different responsibilities of the presidency of the high priesthood, the Twelve Apostles, the Seventy, the high councils in and , bishops, high priests, elders, priests, teachers, and deacons. It explained that there were “two divisions” of the priesthood: the Melchizedek and the Aaronic, the latter of which included the Levitical priesthood. The presidency of the Melchizedek priesthood, or high priesthood, had “the right of presidency” and held “power and authority over all the offices in the church.” Bishops served as presidents of the and were responsible for “administering all temporal things” and for “sit[ting] in judgment upon transgressors.” The Twelve Apostles were “special witnesses of the name of Christ, in all the world” and operated “under the direction of the presidency of the church,” while the Seventy were “especial witnesses unto the Gentiles and in all the world” and acted “under the direction of the twelve.” Although the presidency of the high priesthood directed the Twelve and the Twelve directed the Seventy, all of these offices, as well as the standing high councils in and Missouri, were “equal in authority” to each other.
Joseph Smith provided additional direction at a May 1835 “grand council” of the church. The Twelve Apostles, he stated, did not have the “right to go into Zion or any of its ” where a high council was functioning “and there undertake to regulate the affairs thereof.” Instead, they were “to go abroad and regulate all matters relative to the different branches of the Church.” High councils, on the other hand, did not have authority over “the churches abroad.” Smith also emphasized the authority of the Twelve over the Seventy, stating that the Seventy were “not to attend the conferences of the Twelve unless they are called upon or requested to by the Twelve.” These directives, together with the Instruction on Priesthood, provided guidance on how offices in the church related to each other, something that was necessary as church leadership became more defined and more complex.
Along with giving new instruction on priesthood offices, Joseph Smith and others made efforts to clarify the source of their authority to govern the church. During 1834 and 1835, Joseph Smith—likely working with those appointed as the committee to compile the Doctrine and Covenants—elaborated and expanded some of the content of his earlier revelations. For example, an 1830 revelation, which had been previously published in the 1833 Book of Commandments, contained lengthy additions when it was included in the Doctrine and Covenants. As explained in the expanded revelation, John the Baptist had ordained Smith and to the “first priesthood,” and Peter, James, and John had ordained Smith and Cowdery “to be apostles and especial witnesses” of Jesus Christ. Peter, James, and John, the revelation continued, also gave Smith and Cowdery authority to “bear the keys” of their “ministry.” In September 1835, Cowdery referred to similar events when he recorded expanded versions of several blessings Joseph Smith had originally given to church leaders in December 1833. Cowdery noted that John the Baptist had ordained him and Smith “unto the lesser or Aaronic priesthood” in May 1829, after which, he stated, they “received the high and holy priesthood.” He further explained that God had “delivered to” Joseph Smith “the keys of the kingdom, that is, of authority and spiritual blessings upon the Church,” much like the New Testament recorded Jesus Christ giving Peter the “keys of the kingdom of heaven,” or the authority to establish the kingdom of God on earth. Although references to Smith holding keys had been present in earlier revelations, records in 1834 and 1835 were more explicit as to how Smith had obtained those keys.
During this time, additional instructions and guidance were also provided to church members through blessings given by Joseph Smith and others. In February 1835, the presidency of the high priesthood, , and began blessing the newly called apostles and seventies, perhaps in partial fulfillment of a promise made in a June 1834 revelation. The revelation told those who had participated in the Camp of Israel expedition that they would receive “a great endowment and blessing” for their service. Although the “great endowment” was not to be administered until the was completed, individuals who had been called as apostles or seventies were given ordination blessings. These blessings promised them great success in preaching, while also forecasting difficulties they would encounter in their ministry. The Camp of Israel participants who were not called as apostles or seventies also received blessings, sometimes referred to as “Zion blessings.” Like ordination blessings, these blessings imparted great promises and warnings to the recipients.
The practice of providing formal blessings extended to other church members as well. , as patriarch of the church, began giving blessings to his family members, including Joseph and , and to others in the church. pronounced a blessing upon Joseph Smith, and Smith provided blessings to church leaders. Those who worked on or donated to the were also blessed for their service.
Many of the blessings given in this period were recorded in official church records. entered the ordination blessings of the apostles and the seventies into Minute Book 1. , who was designated the recorder of the church in September 1835, began entering blessings given by Joseph Smith and into a newly purchased book used for recording patriarchal blessings. Cowdery’s appointment and the recording of these blessings illustrate Joseph Smith’s continued efforts to keep records in the church. Although Smith had periodically kept a journal and had composed a history of some of the founding events of the church in 1832, his own record keeping and that of the church as a whole, including the work of church historian , had been sporadic at best. He lamented to the Twelve Apostles in February 1835 that the church did not have “every decision which has been given upon important items of doctrine and duties since the rise of this church,” since if such a record existed, it “would be of incalculable worth to the saints.” He thus counseled the Twelve to keep a record of their decisions. The Twelve responded by calling and as clerks and assigning them to record the minutes of their meetings. Hyde and McLellin accordingly kept a record of the Twelve’s meetings in , held in preparation for their mission to the eastern and ; they also kept minutes of the conferences the Twelve held on their mission in spring and summer 1835.
Also during this time period, began an attempt in the Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate, the church newspaper that replaced The Evening and the Morning Star, to provide “a full history of the rise of this church” by publishing a series of letters he exchanged with on the subject. As part of this effort, Joseph Smith provided information to Cowdery about the early years of his life. By fall 1835, the Messenger and Advocate had published Cowdery’s account of Smith’s early history prior to his obtaining the gold plates associated with the Book of Mormon. Cowdery began another effort around December 1834 to compile a history of Joseph Smith, but he ceased working on it after a couple of entries. and Joseph Smith later continued Cowdery’s work.
In part, Joseph Smith and others may have believed it was important to provide accounts of his life and the early history of the church to combat ’s book, Mormonism Unvailed, which was published in November 1834. Howe, who had earlier clashed with church members while he was editor of the Painesville Telegraph, stated that the book’s purpose was to convince readers that Smith was an impostor. The book included affidavits collected by from people who claimed to have been acquainted with Joseph Smith and his family when they lived in . These affidavits attempted to denigrate “the moral characters of the Smith family.” Joseph Smith defended his and his family’s reputations, stating that he had never “been guilty of wronging or injuring any man or society of men,” although he was guilty of having in his youth “a light, and too often, vain mind” and had fallen “into many vices and follies.” However, Howe’s book received a favorable review in ’s Millennial Harbinger and was available for purchase throughout , western , and . Campbell, who was the leader of the Disciples of Christ, also characterized Joseph Smith as an impostor and the Book of Mormon as a fabrication.
Disputes between Joseph Smith and others also led to court cases during this era. In December 1833, threatened to kill Joseph Smith, leading Smith to file a complaint against him. A hearing on this complaint was held in April 1834 before the Court of Common Pleas in , Ohio. The court determined that Smith “had ground to fear” a physical attack from Hurlbut and ordered Hurlbut to post a two-hundred-dollar bond to keep the peace, a decision that Joseph Smith believed was an answer to prayer. In another case, Joseph Smith faced charges of assault and battery for an altercation with his brother-in-law in April 1835, but he was eventually cleared of the charges.
Joseph Smith also faced opposition from within the church. After the Camp of Israel expedition was disbanded, , a member of the high council, charged Joseph Smith with engaging in “criminal conduct” while leading the camp, including misusing camp funds and property and abusing Sylvester’s character. A series of councils in August 1834 cleared Joseph Smith of the accusations and reprimanded Sylvester Smith for making them; Sylvester eventually recanted his statements in the Messenger and Advocate. Joseph Smith declared afterward, “I have succeeded in putting all gainsayers and enemies to flight unto the present time and not withstanding the advisary Laid a plan which was more subtle than all others, I now swim in good clean water with my head out!”
In the midst of these difficulties, Joseph Smith and other church leaders continued planning for a return to . The June 1834 revelation disbanding the camp had stated that the elders would need to wait for “a little season” before Zion’s redemption could occur. During that little season, Smith was to continue gathering “young men and middle aged,” while the Saints were to continue to purchase land in the area. Once the army was “very great” and the church was strengthened, Zion could be redeemed. In accordance with these instructions, Joseph Smith designated 11 September 1836 as the date of Zion’s redemption and church members made preparations for their return at that time. In May 1835, participants of a council held in designated the order by which church leaders were to receive in Zion. In August 1835, Smith and other leaders told the Saints in to give Bishop “their names places of residince &c.” so that they could locate each member “when the Governor shall give directions for you to be set over on your lands.” In September, Smith and the Kirtland high council established a “war department” for the church and appointed as “Capt of the Lords host” and Joseph Smith as “ to stand at the head.” Their plan was to bring a contingent of eight hundred to one thousand men to Missouri in 1836, after which the Saints would petition to return them to their lands. “We go next season to live or dy in Jackson County,” the Kirtland high council declared on 24 September 1835. Its members then “covena[n]ted to stru[g]gle for this thing utill [until] death shall desolve this union.”
This focus on the redemption of Zion is found throughout the ninety-three documents in this volume, which chronicle Joseph Smith’s life during the tumultuous period from April 1834 through September 1835. The documents themselves come in a variety of formats. Many of them are minutes of meetings that Joseph Smith attended, generally meetings of the high council and the church presidency in . Most of these minutes were taken by clerks appointed for that purpose. The minutes were later copied into Minute Book 1, a record of meetings in Kirtland; Minute Book 2, a volume containing minutes from church meetings in ; and the Record of the Twelve, a book of minutes of meetings held by the Twelve Apostles in 1835. Correspondence between Joseph Smith and church leaders, his wife , and his cousin also constitute a large part of the volume. Some of these letters are in Joseph Smith’s own hand, including one he wrote to Emma while in , Indiana, on the Camp of Israel expedition, but most are in the handwriting of others, such as and . Some letters are found in Smith’s letterbooks or his journal, while others were published in periodicals such as The Evening and the Morning Star and the Messenger and Advocate. The volume features seven revelations—instructions to Joseph Smith and the Saints in the voice of Deity, accepted and followed by church members as from God. Like Smith’s letters, the revelations come from a variety of sources, including personal copies, copies made in two manuscript revelation books, and the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants. Other documents include , financial records, transcripts of blessings dictated by Joseph Smith, and a certificate attesting to Smith’s ability to translate the Egyptian papyri that he purchased in summer 1835. The volume also contains five appendixes, consisting of several documents for which Joseph Smith’s authorship is uncertain. Two of these were included in the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants: a declaration on government and law and a statement conveying the church’s “Rules for Marriage.”
The documents in this volume were, for the most part, originally produced either in , Ohio, or in various locations in , although some originated in , , and . A few of the documents also originated in other locations in , such as and . Some documents report the transactions of meetings held in Joseph Smith’s home in Kirtland, while others provide accounts of meetings held in the Kirtland . Other minutes describe meetings held in the unfinished .
The documents in this volume provide insight into Joseph Smith’s development as a church leader and illuminate the evolution of the church itself. They indicate the depth of Joseph Smith’s commitment to build the city of Zion in and highlight the distress that church members’ expulsion from caused the Saints—even those who were not directly affected. Such distress made regaining lands in Jackson County one of Smith’s utmost concerns in 1834 and 1835. “As the Lord God liveth the redemtion of Zion is nigh at hand,” he wrote in July 1835, “and we shall live to see it.” These documents provide a window into his and the Saints’ efforts to bring that redemption to pass. They also highlight Joseph Smith’s endeavors to encourage the church’s growth in and other areas and his attempts to provide a more defined ecclesiastical leadership structure for the burgeoning church. As such, these documents are essential for any serious study of Joseph Smith or the church between April 1834 and September 1835.
  1. 1

    Minutes and Discourse, 2 May 1835.  

  2. 2

    As William W. Phelps explained in the church periodical The Evening and the Morning Star, the Saints in the city of Zion would “meet the Savior at his second coming,” and he would “dwell with them in the millennium reign.” (“The Elders in the Land of Zion to the Church of Christ Scattered Abroad,” The Evening and the Morning Star, July 1832, [5].)  

    The Evening and the Morning Star. Independence, MO, June 1832–July 1833; Kirtland, OH, Dec. 1833–Sept. 1834.

  3. 3

    [Emma Smith], List, ca. 1845, in Lucy Mack Smith, History, 1844–1845, Miscellany; Staker, Hearken, O Ye People, 251. Perhaps as early as November 1833 (when he began receiving Don Carlos Smith, Phineas Young, and Solomon Wilbur Denton as boarders), Joseph Smith moved his family out of Newel K. Whitney’s white store, where they had been living since September 1832. The family moved into a home situated about a hundred yards north of the site where the Kirtland House of the Lord was being constructed, just above the Kirtland Flats. Smith and his family lived in this house for about five years (1833–1838). (JS, Journal, 22 Nov. 1833; 9 and 11 Dec. 1833; [Emma Smith], List, ca. 1845, in Lucy Mack Smith, History, 1844–1845, Miscellany; “Portion of Kirtland Township, Ohio, 12 January 1838”; Berrett, Sacred Places, 3:21.)  

    Smith, Lucy Mack. History, 1844–1845. 18 books. CHL. MS 2049. Also available at josephsmithpapers.org.

    Staker, Mark L. Hearken, O Ye People: The Historical Setting of Joseph Smith’s Ohio Revelations. Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2009.

    Berrett, LaMar C., ed. Sacred Places: A Comprehensive Guide to Early LDS Historical Sites. 6 vols. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1999–2007.

  4. 4

    JS History, vol. A-1, 477–478, 528; Oliver Cowdery, Editorial, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Oct. 1834, 1:3–7; Minutes, 8 Sept. 1834; JS History, vol. B-1, 600.  

    JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). Historian’s Office, History of the Church, 1839–ca. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1–7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  5. 5

    Backman, Heavens Resound, 139–140; Parkin, “History of the Latter-day Saints in Clay County,” 31–33.  

    Backman, Milton V., Jr. The Heavens Resound: A History of the Latter-day Saints in Ohio, 1830–1838. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1983.

    Parkin, Max H. “A History of the Latter-day Saints in Clay County, Missouri, from 1833 to 1837.” PhD diss., Brigham Young University, 1976.

  6. 6

    Edward Partridge, Report, 31 Oct. 1835, Missionary Reports, 1831–1900, CHL.  

    Missionary Reports, 1831–1900. CHL. MS 6104.

  7. 7

    For more information about the expulsion of the Saints, see Parley P. Pratt et al., “‘The Mormons’ So Called,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Extra, Feb. 1834, [1]–[2]; “A History, of the Persecution,” Times and Seasons, Dec. 1839, 1:17–20; Jan. 1840, 1:33–36; and “Joseph Smith Documents from February 1833 through March 1834,”  

    The Evening and the Morning Star. Independence, MO, June 1832–July 1833; Kirtland, OH, Dec. 1833–Sept. 1834.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  8. 8

    Revelation, 16–17 Dec. 1833 [D&C 101:43–57, 67–74, 86–89].  

  9. 9

    Letter to the Church in Clay Co., MO, 22 Jan. 1834; “A Scrap of Mormonism,” Painesville (OH) Telegraph, 24 Jan. 1834, [1]; Howe, Mormonism Unvailed, 147–155.  

    Painesville Telegraph. Painesville, OH. 1831–1838.

    Howe, Eber D. Mormonism Unvailed: Or, A Faithful Account of That Singular Imposition and Delusion, from Its Rise to the Present Time. With Sketches of the Characters of Its Propagators, and a Full Detail of the Manner in Which the Famous Golden Bible Was Brought before the World. To Which Are Added, Inquiries into the Probability That the Historical Part of the Said Bible Was Written by One Solomon Spalding, More Than Twenty Years Ago, and by Him Intended to Have Been Published as a Romance. Painesville, OH: By the author, 1834.

  10. 10

    Pratt, Autobiography, 114.  

    Pratt, Parley P. The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Embracing His Life, Ministry and Travels, with Extracts, in Prose and Verse, from His Miscellaneous Writings. Edited by Parley P. Pratt Jr. New York: Russell Brothers, 1874.

  11. 11

    Minutes, 24 Feb. 1834.  

  12. 12

    Revelation, 24 Feb. 1834 [D&C 103:15–24].  

  13. 13

    JS, Journal, 26–28 Feb. and 1–28 Mar. 1834.  

  14. 14

    Edward Partridge et al., Liberty, MO, Petition to Andrew Jackson, 10 Apr. 1834; William W. Phelps et al., Clay Co., MO, to Daniel Dunklin, 6 Dec. 1833, copy; Lewis Cass, Washington DC, to Sidney Gilbert et al., Liberty, MO, 2 May 1834, William W. Phelps, Collection of Missouri Documents, CHL.  

    Phelps, William W. Collection of Missouri Documents, 1833–1837. CHL. MS 657.

  15. 15

    Robert W. Wells, Jefferson City, MO, to Alexander Doniphan and David R. Atchison, 21 Nov. 1833, copy, William W. Phelps, Collection of Missouri Documents, CHL; John F. Ryland, Liberty, MO, to David R. Atchison, 19 Feb. 1834, in “Mormon Difficulties,” Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser (Columbia), 8 Mar. 1834, [1].  

    Phelps, William W. Collection of Missouri Documents, 1833–1837. CHL. MS 657.

    Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser. Franklin, MO, 1819–1827; Fayette, MO, 1827–1830; Columbia, MO, 1830–1835.

  16. 16

    Daniel Dunklin, Jefferson City, MO, to David R. Atchison, 5 Feb. 1834, in “Mormon Difficulties,” Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser (Columbia), 8 Mar. 1834, [1].  

    Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser. Franklin, MO, 1819–1827; Fayette, MO, 1827–1830; Columbia, MO, 1830–1835.

  17. 17

    See, for example, Letter from William W. Phelps, 27 Feb. 1834.  

  18. 18

    Daniel Dunklin, Jefferson City, MO, to William W. Phelps et al., Liberty, MO, 20 Apr. 1834, William W. Phelps, Collection of Missouri Documents, CHL.  

    Phelps, William W. Collection of Missouri Documents, 1833–1837. CHL. MS 657.

  19. 19

    Sidney Gilbert et al., Liberty, MO, to Daniel Dunklin, 5 June 1834, William W. Phelps, Collection of Missouri Documents, CHL.  

    Phelps, William W. Collection of Missouri Documents, 1833–1837. CHL. MS 657.

  20. 20

    JS History, vol. A-1, 477–478.  

    JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). Historian’s Office, History of the Church, 1839–ca. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1–7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.

  21. 21

    JS History, vol. A-1, 477–478; Kimball, “Journal and Record,” 11; Radke, “We Also Marched,” 149. Contemporary records generally refer to the expedition as the Camp of Israel. Heber C. Kimball, one of the participants, referred to it as the “camp of Zion” in an autobiography he dictated around July 1840. (Kimball, “Journal and Record,” 20; Clayton, Diary, 3 Sept. 1840.)  

    JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). Historian’s Office, History of the Church, 1839–ca. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1–7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.

    Kimball, Heber C. “The Journal and Record of Heber Chase Kimball an Apostle of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints,” ca. 1842–1858. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 1.

    Radke, Andrea G. “We Also Marched: The Women and Children of Zion’s Camp, 1834.” BYU Studies 39 (2000): 147–165.

    Clayton, William. Diary, Vol. 1, 1840–1842. BYU.

  22. 22

    JS History, vol. A-1, 478; Letter to Emma Smith, 4 June 1834; Kimball, “Journal and Record,” 8; Baldwin, Account of Zion’s Camp, 9; McBride, Reminiscence, 2; Account with the Church of Christ, ca. 11–29 Aug. 1834.  

    JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). Historian’s Office, History of the Church, 1839–ca. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1–7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.

    Kimball, Heber C. “The Journal and Record of Heber Chase Kimball an Apostle of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints,” ca. 1842–1858. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 1.

    Baldwin, Nathan Bennett. Account of Zion’s Camp, 1882. Typescript. CHL. MS 499.

    McBride, Reuben, Sr. Reminiscence, no date. CHL. MS 8197.

  23. 23

    Sidney Rigdon and Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to “Dear Brethren,” 10 May 1834, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 49–50. Missouri church leaders provided Dunklin with a similar description of the expedition’s purpose, telling him that “a number of our brethren, perhaps 2 or 3 hundred, would remove to Jackson Co in the course of the ensuing summer” but would use force only if faced with “another unparallelled attack from that mob.” (Sidney Gilbert et al., Liberty, MO, to Daniel Dunklin, 24 Apr. 1834, copy, William W. Phelps, Collection of Missouri Documents, CHL.)  

    Cowdery, Oliver. Letterbook, 1833–1838. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

    Phelps, William W. Collection of Missouri Documents, 1833–1837. CHL. MS 657.

  24. 24

    Letter to Emma Smith, 4 June 1834.  

  25. 25

    “Another Mormon War Threatened!,” Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser (Columbia), 7 June 1834, [3], italics in original.  

    Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser. Franklin, MO, 1819–1827; Fayette, MO, 1827–1830; Columbia, MO, 1830–1835.

  26. 26

    John Corrill, Clay Co., MO, 14 June 1834, Letter to the Editor, The Evening and the Morning Star, June 1834, 168; “The Mormon Controversy,” Daily National Intelligencer (Washington DC), 23 July 1834, [3].  

    The Evening and the Morning Star. Independence, MO, June 1832–July 1833; Kirtland, OH, Dec. 1833–Sept. 1834.

    Daily National Intelligencer. Washington DC. 1800–1869.

  27. 27

    Samuel Norton and John Marsh, Independence, MO, to Amos Rees, Alexander Doniphan, and David R. Atchison, Liberty, MO, 9 June 1834, copy; John F. Ryland to Sidney Gilbert, Liberty, MO, 10 June 1834, William W. Phelps, Collection of Missouri Documents, CHL; Daniel Dunklin, Jefferson City, MO, to John Thornton, 6 June 1834, in “The Mormons,” Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser (Columbia), 5 July 1834, [2].  

    Phelps, William W. Collection of Missouri Documents, 1833–1837. CHL. MS 657.

    Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser. Franklin, MO, 1819–1827; Fayette, MO, 1827–1830; Columbia, MO, 1830–1835.

  28. 28

    Pratt, Autobiography, 123; George A. Smith, Autobiography, 31, 33; Cahoon, Autobiography, 43; Woodruff, Journal, May 1834; “A History, of the Persecution,” Times and Seasons, Feb. 1840, 1:50.  

    Pratt, Parley P. The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Embracing His Life, Ministry and Travels, with Extracts, in Prose and Verse, from His Miscellaneous Writings. Edited by Parley P. Pratt Jr. New York: Russell Brothers, 1874.

    Smith, George A. Autobiography, ca. 1860–1882. George Albert Smith, Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322, box 1, fd. 2.

    Cahoon, William F. Autobiography, 1878. Microfilm. CHL. MS 8433.

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352. Also available as Wilford Woodruff’s Journals, 1833–1898, edited by Scott G. Kenney, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983–1985).

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  29. 29

    Revelation, 22 June 1834 [D&C 105:7–13].  

  30. 30

    Baldwin, Account of Zion’s Camp, 14; Holbrook, Reminiscences, 38; George A. Smith, Autobiography, 39–40, 50.  

    Baldwin, Nathan Bennett. Account of Zion’s Camp, 1882. Typescript. CHL. MS 499.

    Holbrook, Joseph. Autobiography and Journal, not before 1871. Photocopy. CHL. MS 5004. Original in private possession.

    Smith, George A. Autobiography, ca. 1860–1882. George Albert Smith, Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322, box 1, fd. 2.

  31. 31

    Cahoon, Autobiography, 43; Burgess, Autobiography, 2–3; Kimball, “Journal and Record,” 15–16, 18.  

    Cahoon, William F. Autobiography, 1878. Microfilm. CHL. MS 8433.

    Burgess, Harrison. Autobiography, ca. 1883. Photocopy. CHL. MS 893. Also available as “Sketch of a Well-Spent Life,” in Labors in the Vineyard, Faith-Promoting Series 12 (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1884), 65–74.

    Kimball, Heber C. “The Journal and Record of Heber Chase Kimball an Apostle of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints,” ca. 1842–1858. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 1.

  32. 32

    Parkin, “Zion’s Camp Cholera Victims Monument Dedication,” 4–5.  

    Parkin, Max H. “Zion’s Camp Cholera Victims Monument Dedication.” Missouri Mormon Frontier Foundation Newsletter 15 (Fall 1997): 4–5.

  33. 33

    See Revelation, 27–28 Dec. 1832 [D&C 88:119]; and Revelation, 1 June 1833 [D&C 95:8].  

  34. 34

    JS History, vol. B-1, 562; William E. McLellin, Notice, 27 Feb. 1835, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Feb. 1835, 1:80; Letters to John Burk, Sally Waterman Phelps, and Almira Mack Scobey, 1–2 June 1835. The two schools were separate entities. Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith ran the Elders School, while William E. McLellin and Thomas Burdick were the instructors in the grammar school. (Grant, Collection of Facts, 8–9; McLellin, Journal, 22 Dec. 1834.)  

    JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). Historian’s Office, History of the Church, 1839–ca. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1–7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

    Grant, Jedediah M. A Collection of Facts, Relative to the Course Taken by Elder Sidney Rigdon, in the States of Ohio, Missouri, Illinois and Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Brown, Bicking and Guilbert, 1844.

    McLellin, William E. Journal, July 1834–Apr. 1835. William E. McLellin, Papers, 1831–1836, 1877–1878. CHL. MS 13538, box 1, fd. 4. Also available as Jan Shipps and John W. Welch, eds., The Journals of William E. McLellin, 1831–1836 (Provo, UT: BYU Studies; Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994).

  35. 35

    Minutes, 24 Sept. 1834.  

  36. 36

    “A History, of the Persecution,” Times and Seasons, Dec. 1839, 1:18; Historical Introduction to Book of Commandments.  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  37. 37

    Preface to Doctrine and Covenants, 17 Feb. 1835.  

  38. 38

    William W. Phelps to Sally Waterman Phelps, no date; William W. Phelps, Kirtland, OH, to Sally Waterman Phelps, Liberty, MO, 26 May 1835, William W. Phelps, Papers, BYU; “Doctrine and Covenants,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, Aug. 1835, 1:170; William W. Phelps, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Sally Waterman Phelps, Liberty, MO, 16–18 Sept. 1835, private possession, copy at CHL.  

    Phelps, William W. Papers, 1835–1865. BYU.

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

    Phelps, William W. Letter, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Sally Waterman Phelps, Liberty, MO, 16–18 Sept. 1835. Private possession. Copy at CHL. MS 4587.

  39. 39

    Preface to Doctrine and Covenants, 17 Feb. 1835.  

  40. 40

    William W. Phelps, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Sally Waterman Phelps, Liberty, MO, 16–18 Sept. 1835, private possession, copy at CHL.  

    Phelps, William W. Letter, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Sally Waterman Phelps, Liberty, MO, 16–18 Sept. 1835. Private possession. Copy at CHL. MS 4587.

  41. 41

    Revelation, 1 Mar. 1832 [D&C 78:3–5]; Revelation, 26 Apr. 1832 [D&C 82:11–12, 17]; Revelation, 12 Nov. 1831 [D&C 70:3–8, 14–15]. The firm originally consisted of nine men: Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Oliver Cowdery, John Whitmer, William W. Phelps, Martin Harris, Edward Partridge, Sidney Gilbert, and Newel K. Whitney. Frederick G. Williams and John Johnson were both added to the firm in 1833. (Revelation, 26 Apr. 1832 [D&C 82:11]; Revelation, 15 Mar. 1833 [D&C 92:1]; Revelation, 4 June 1833 [D&C 96:6–9].)  

  42. 42

    There were two church storehouses—one operated by Sidney Gilbert in Independence, Missouri, and one operated by Newel K. Whitney in Kirtland, Ohio. (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 25 June 1833; Order from Newel K. Whitney, 18 Apr. 1834; Frederick G. Williams, Kirtland, OH, to “Dear Brethren,” 10 Oct. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 56–60.)  

    JS Letterbook 1 / Smith, Joseph. “Letter Book A,” 1832–1835. Joseph Smith Collection. CHL. MS 155, box 2, fd. 1.

  43. 43

    Revelation, 4 June 1833 [D&C 96:2]; Geauga Co., OH, Deed Records, 1795–1921, vol. 17, pp. 38–39, 10 Apr. 1833; pp. 360–361, 17 June 1833, microfilm 20,237, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  44. 44

    Order from Newel K. Whitney, 18 Apr. 1834.  

  45. 45

    JS, Journal, 10 Apr. 1834; Revelation, 23 Apr. 1834 [D&C 104]. Individual debts that firm members owed to each other were also forgiven. (Balance of Account, 23 Apr. 1834.)  

  46. 46

    Revelation, 23 Apr. 1834 [D&C 104]; Parkin, “Joseph Smith and the United Firm,” 33–34.  

  47. 47

    Minutes, 28 Nov. 1834.  

  48. 48

    JS, Journal, 29 Nov. 1834; Covenant, 29 Nov. 1834.  

  49. 49

    Editorial, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Apr. 1835, 1:107–108; Recommendation for Edward Partridge and Isaac Morley, 1 June 1835; Letter to Quorum of the Twelve, 4 Aug. 1835.  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  50. 50

    Letter to Church Brethren, 15 June 1835; Faulring et al., Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 3–6.  

    Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2004.

  51. 51

    Minutes, 14 July 1835.  

  52. 52

    Revised Minutes, 18–19 Feb. 1834 [D&C 102:2].  

  53. 53

    See, for example, Minutes, 19 Feb. 1834; Minutes, 20 Feb. 1834; and Minutes, 24 Feb. 1834.  

  54. 54

    Minutes, 17 Feb. 1834.  

  55. 55

    Minutes and Discourse, ca. 7 July 1834.  

  56. 56

    Minutes, 23 June 1834; Minutes and Discourse, ca. 7 July 1834.  

  57. 57

    Letters to John Burk, Sally Waterman Phelps, and Almira Mack Scobey, 1–2 June 1835.  

  58. 58

    Letter to Church Officers in Missouri, 31 Aug. 1835.  

  59. 59

    William W. Phelps to Sally Waterman Phelps, 20 July 1835, William W. Phelps, Papers, BYU.  

    Phelps, William W. Papers, 1835–1865. BYU.

  60. 60

    Patriarchal Blessings, 1:8; see also Genesis chap. 49.  

    Patriarchal Blessings, 1833–. CHL. CR 500 2.

  61. 61

    Account of Meetings, Revelation, and Blessing, 5–6 Dec. 1834; Note, 8 Mar. 1832. By June 1835, this presidency was sometimes called “the first presidency of the Melchisedek priesthood.” The role that Hyrum Smith and Joseph Smith Sr. played in the presidency is difficult to ascertain. A later Joseph Smith history refers to only Cowdery being ordained as an assistant president, not the other two. Whether they were considered on the same level hierarchically with Joseph Smith, Cowdery, Rigdon, and Williams is unclear. (Revelation, ca. June 1835 [D&C 68:15]; JS History, vol. B-1, 562–563.)  

    JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). Historian’s Office, History of the Church, 1839–ca. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1–7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.

  62. 62

    Oliver Cowdery, Editorial, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Oct. 1834, 1:3; Whitmer, History, 70–71; Minutes, 23 June 1834.  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  63. 63

    Minutes, 14 Sept. 1835; see also Letter to Quorum of the Twelve, 4 Aug. 1835. Because meetings of the two presidencies were sometimes referred to as a “high council,” it can be difficult to ascertain from meeting minutes whether it was the Kirtland high council, the presidency of the Kirtland high council, or the two presidencies meeting. (See Minute Book 1, 19 Aug. 1835; Minutes, 24 Aug. 1835; and Minutes, 14 Sept. 1835.)  

  64. 64

    Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 14–15 Feb. 1835; Revelation, June 1829–B [D&C 18:37]. John F. Boynton, David W. Patten, William E. McLellin, and Thomas B. Marsh were the four apostles who had not gone on the Camp of Israel expedition. Boynton was preaching in Maine at the time, Patten had relocated to Missouri in March 1834, and McLellin and Marsh were also living in Missouri. (Sylvester Stoddard, Saco, ME, to Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, 15 June 1834, in The Evening and the Morning Star, Aug. 1834, 181; Patten, Journal, 4 Mar. 1834; “Affairs in the West,” The Evening and the Morning Star, July 1834, 175; “T. B. Marsh,” [2], Historian’s Office, Histories of the Twelve, 1856–1858, 1861, CHL.)  

    The Evening and the Morning Star. Independence, MO, June 1832–July 1833; Kirtland, OH, Dec. 1833–Sept. 1834.

    Patten, David W. Journal, 1832–1834. CHL. MS 603.

    Historian’s Office. Histories of the Twelve, 1856–1858, 1861. CHL. CR 100 93.

  65. 65

    Minutes and Blessings, 28 Feb.–1 Mar. 1835; Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 1 Mar. 1835.  

  66. 66

    Minutes and Discourses, 27 Feb. 1835.  

  67. 67

    Revelation, 11 Nov. 1831–B [D&C 107 (partial)].  

  68. 68

    Instruction on Priesthood, between ca. 1 Mar. and ca. 4 May 1835 [D&C 107:1–9, 15, 23–26, 33–34, 36–37, 69–72].  

  69. 69

    Minutes and Discourse, 2 May 1835.  

  70. 70

    For more information on the reasons for these expansions, see “Joseph Smith-Era Publications of Revelations,”  

  71. 71

    Revelation, ca. Aug. 1835 [D&C 27:7–12].  

  72. 72

    Patriarchal Blessings, 1:8.  

    Patriarchal Blessings, 1833–. CHL. CR 500 2.

  73. 73

    Matthew 16:19; for additional explanations of the meaning of keys, see “Keys” in the glossary.  

  74. 74

    See, for example, Revelation, 30 Oct. 1831 [D&C 65:2]; and Revelation, 15 Mar. 1832 [D&C 81:1–2].  

  75. 75

    Revelation, 22 June 1834 [D&C 105:12]. Harrison Burgess, who was appointed to the Seventy, later recalled that “during the winter and spring” of 1835, “the Zion camp was called together to receive an especial blessing, according to a promise which had been made” in the June 1834 revelation. (Burgess, Autobiography, 52.)  

    Burgess, Harrison. Autobiography, ca. 1883. Photocopy. CHL. MS 893. Also available as “Sketch of a Well-Spent Life,” in Labors in the Vineyard, Faith-Promoting Series 12 (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1884), 65–74.

  76. 76

    Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 14–15 Feb. 1835; Minutes and Blessings, 28 Feb.–1 Mar. 1835; Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 1 Mar. 1835.  

  77. 77

    Minutes, 8 Aug. 1835; Park, “Zion’s Blessings in the Early Church,” 27–37.  

    Park, Benjamin E. “‘ Thou Wast Willing to Lay Down Thy Life for Thy Brethren’: Zion’s Blessings in the Early Church.” John Whitmer Historical Association Journal 29 (2009): 27–37.

  78. 78

    Patriarchal Blessings, 1:1–8.  

    Patriarchal Blessings, 1833–. CHL. CR 500 2.

  79. 79

    Blessing from Oliver Cowdery, 22 Sept. 1835.  

  80. 80

    Blessing to David Whitmer, 22 Sept. 1835; Blessing to John Whitmer, 22 Sept. 1835; Blessing to John Corrill, 22 Sept. 1835; Blessing to William W. Phelps, 22 Sept. 1835; Minutes and Discourses, 7–8 Mar. 1835.  

  81. 81

    Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 14–15 Feb. 1835; Minutes and Blessings, 28 Feb.–1 Mar. 1835; Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 1 Mar. 1835.  

  82. 82

    Minutes, 14 Sept. 1835.  

  83. 83

    JS, Journal, 1832–1834; JS History, ca. Summer 1832. Joseph Smith kept a journal from November 1832 to December 1834. In September 1835, after nearly a year’s hiatus, he resumed his journal. (JS, Journal, 22 Sept. 1835.)  

  84. 84

    Minutes and Discourses, 27 Feb. 1835.  

  85. 85

    Record of the Twelve, 14 Feb.–28 Aug. 1835; see also Esplin and Nielsen, “Record of the Twelve,” 5–52.  

    Esplin, Ronald K., and Sharon E. Nielsen. “The Record of the Twelve, 1835: The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles’ Call and 1835 Mission.” BYU Studies 51, no. 1 (2012): 4–52.

  86. 86

    Editorial, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Oct. 1834, 1:13; Oliver Cowdery, Norton, OH, to William W. Phelps, 7 Sept. 1834, in LDS Messenger and Advocate, Oct. 1834, 1:13–16.  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  87. 87

    Letter to Oliver Cowdery, Dec. 1834.  

  88. 88

    See “Letter VII,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, July 1835, 1:155–159.  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  89. 89

    Historical Introduction to JS History, 1834–1836. In the history, Williams and Joseph Smith included the letters Cowdery and Phelps had exchanged.  

  90. 90

    “Mormonism Unvailed,” Painesville (OH) Telegraph, 28 Nov. 1834, [3].  

    Painesville Telegraph. Painesville, OH. 1831–1838.

  91. 91

    Hurlbut had been excommunicated from the church for immorality while serving a mission. (Appeal and Minutes, 21 June 1833; Minutes, 23 June 1833.)  

  92. 92

    Howe, Mormonism Unvailed, vii–ix, 231–269; Minutes, 23 June 1833.  

    Howe, Eber D. Mormonism Unvailed: Or, A Faithful Account of That Singular Imposition and Delusion, from Its Rise to the Present Time. With Sketches of the Characters of Its Propagators, and a Full Detail of the Manner in Which the Famous Golden Bible Was Brought before the World. To Which Are Added, Inquiries into the Probability That the Historical Part of the Said Bible Was Written by One Solomon Spalding, More Than Twenty Years Ago, and by Him Intended to Have Been Published as a Romance. Painesville, OH: By the author, 1834.

  93. 93

    Letter to Oliver Cowdery, Dec. 1834.  

  94. 94

    “Mormonism Unveiled,” Millennial Harbinger, Jan. 1835, 44–45; “Mormonism Unveiled,” Fredonia (NY) Censor, 25 Mar. 1835, [3]; “For the Messenger and Advocate,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, May 1835, 1:116.  

    Millennial Harbinger. Bethany, VA. Jan. 1830–Dec. 1870.

    Fredonia Censor. Fredonia, NY. 1824–1932.

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  95. 95

    Campbell, Delusions, 5–6. Joseph Smith responded to Campbell’s accusations in a letter published in the September 1834 issue of The Evening and the Morning Star. Smith stated that Campbell was “breathing out scurrility” but was also “caus[ing] men to investigate and embrace the book of Mormon, who might otherwise never have perused it.” (Letter to Oliver Cowdery, 24 Sept. 1834.)  

    Campbell, Alexander. Delusions. An Analysis of the Book of Mormon; with an Examination of Its Internal and External Evidences, and a Refutation of Its Pretences to Divine Authority. Boston: Benjamin H. Greene, 1832.

  96. 96

    Winchester, Origin of the Spaulding Story, 11; Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, vol. P, pp. 431–432, 31 Mar. 1834, microfilm 20,278, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.  

    Winchester, B[enjamin]. The Origin of the Spaulding Story, concerning the Manuscript Found; with a Short Biography of Dr. P. Hulbert, the Originator of the Same; and Some Testimony Adduced, Showing It to Be a Sheer Fabrication, So Far as Its Connection with the Book of Mormon Is Concerned. Philadelphia: Brown, Bicking, and Guilbert, 1840.

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  97. 97

    Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, vol. P, pp. 431–432, 31 Mar. 1834, microfilm 20,278, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; JS, Journal, 2–5 and 7–9 Apr. 1834.  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  98. 98

    Letter to Editor, 22 June 1835.  

  99. 99

    Smith was not related to Joseph Smith.  

  100. 100

    Minutes, 11 Aug. 1834.  

  101. 101

    Minutes, 11 Aug. 1834; Minutes, 23 Aug. 1834; Resolutions, ca. 23 Aug. 1834; Minutes, 28–29 Aug. 1834; Sylvester Smith to Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, 28 Oct. 1834, in LDS Messenger and Advocate, Oct. 1834, 1:10–11.  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  102. 102

    Letter to Lyman Wight et al., 16 Aug. 1834, underlining in original.  

  103. 103

    After Sylvester Smith recanted his charges, Dennis Lake, another expedition participant, also brought a suit against Joseph Smith in November 1834, stating that Smith owed him money for the labor he performed on the expedition. Justice of the Peace John Dowen initially awarded Lake $63.67 in the matter, but after Joseph Smith appealed the decision, the Geauga County Court of Common Pleas overturned it. (Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, vol. Q, pp. 506–508, 16 June 1835, microfilm 20,278, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL)  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  104. 104

    Revelation, 22 June 1834 [D&C 105:13, 16, 20, 27–31].  

  105. 105

    Letter to Lyman Wight et al., 16 Aug. 1834.  

  106. 106

    William W. Phelps, Kirtland, OH, to Sally Waterman Phelps, Liberty, MO, 26 May 1835, William W. Phelps, Papers, BYU; Whitmer, History, 71–72.  

    Phelps, William W. Papers, 1835–1865. BYU.

  107. 107

    Letter to Church Officers in Missouri, 31 Aug. 1835; see also JS, Journal, 24 Sept. 1835.  

  108. 108

    Whitmer, History, 81.  

  109. 109

    JS, Journal, 24 Sept. 1835.  

  110. 110

    Certificate from Michael Chandler, 6 July 1835.  

  111. 111

    Declaration on Government and Law, ca. Aug. 1835 [D&C 134]; Statement on Marriage, ca. Aug. 1835; Minutes, 17 Aug. 1835.  

  112. 112

    Portion of Kirtland Township, Ohio, 12 January 1838,” Berrett, Sacred Places, 3:21, 29.  

    Berrett, LaMar C., ed. Sacred Places: A Comprehensive Guide to Early LDS Historical Sites. 6 vols. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1999–2007.

  113. 113

    See, for example, Minutes, 26 Apr. 1835.  

  114. 114

    Letter to Sally Waterman Phelps, 20 July 1835.