JS, “Sketch Book for the use of Joseph Smith, jr.,” Journal, Sept. 1835–Apr. 1836; handwriting ofWarren Parrish, an unidentified scribe,
10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...View Full BioSylvester Smith,
25 Mar. 1806–22 Feb. 1880. Farmer, carpenter, lawyer, realtor. Born at Tyringham, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Chileab Smith and Nancy Marshall. Moved to Amherst, Lorain Co., Ohio, ca. 1815. Married Elizabeth Frank, 27 Dec. 1827, likely in Chautauque...View Full BioFrederick G. Williams,
28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...View Full BioWarren Cowdery, JS, and
17 Oct. 1788–23 Feb. 1851. Physician, druggist, farmer, editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Married Patience Simonds, 22 Sept. 1814, in Pawlet, Rutland Co. Moved to Freedom, Cattaraugus Co., New York, 1816...View Full BioThe text block consists of 114 leaves—including single flyleaves and pastedowns in the front and back—measuring 12¼ x 8 inches (31 x 20 cm). The 110 interior leaves are ledger paper with thirty-four lines in faint—and now faded—black ink that has turned brown. There are nine gatherings of various sizes—each gathering about a dozen leaves. The text block is sewn all along over cloth tapes. The front and back covers of the journal are pasteboard. The ledger has a tight-back case binding with a brown calfskin quarter-leather binding. The outside covers are adorned in shell marbled paper, with dark green body and veins of light green. The bound volume measures 12⅜ x 8¼ inches (31 x 21 cm) and is 13/16 inches (2 cm) thick. One cover of the book is labeled “Repentence.” in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains eight lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to Repentince”. The spine has “No 8” inscribed upside up when the book is standing upright for this side. When the volume is turned upside down and flipped front to back, the other cover is titled “Sabbath Day” with “No 9” written beneath in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains two lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to the Sabbath day”. Thus the book was used to simultaneously house two volumes of topical notes on biblical passages. This book was apparently part of a larger series that included at least two other extant volumes—one bearing “Faith” and “10” on the cover, and the other bearing “Second Comeing of Christ” and “No 3” on one cover and “Gift of the Holy Ghost” on the other cover.1In late 1835, JS and scribes began using the book to record his journal for 1835–1836, which begins on the recto of the second leaf of ledger paper.
Kirtland Egyptian Papers, ca. 1835–1836. CHL.
Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.The entire journal is inscribed in black ink that later turned brown. Pages 25, 51, 77, 103, 129, and 154 bear the marks of adhesive wafers that were probably used to attach manuscripts until they were copied into the journal. The journal was used inNauvoo, Illinois, in 1843 as a major source in composing JS’s multivolume manuscript history of the church. At this time, redactions were made in ink and in graphite pencil, and use marks were made in graphite. Also, apparently in Nauvoo, the cover of the journal side of the book was marked with a “D” and then with a larger, stylized “D”. At some point a white paper spine label was added with “1835–6 <
Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...More Info2
Historian’s Office. Catalogs and Inventories, 1846–1904. CHL. CR 100 130.
Johnson, Jeffery O. Register of the Joseph Smith Collection in the Church Archives, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Salt Lake City: Historical Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1973.
- 1 “Grammar & Aphabet of the Egyptian Language,” Kirtland Egyptian Papers, ca. 1835–1836, CHL; Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record”.
- 2 Historian’s Office, “Schedule of Church Records”; “Historian’s Office Catalogue,” , Catalogs and Inventories, 1846–1904, CHL; Johnson, Register of the Joseph Smith Collection, 7.
JS viewed himself as divinely commissioned to gather God’s people in the last days and prepare them for Jesus Christ’s second coming and millennial reign. By 1835, the1Construction began 6 June 1833 after JS and colleagues saw in vision the completed structure.2As writing in this journal began, construction was nearing completion. The newly established Quorum of the Twelve and Quorum of the Seventy were returning from preaching assignments and joining with church officers from
Angell, Truman O. Autobiography, 1884. CHL. MS 12334. Also available in Archie Leon Brown and Charlene L. Hathaway, 141 Years of Mormon Heritage: Rawsons, Browns, Angells—Pioneers (Oakland, CA: By the authors, 1973), 119–135.3Thus empowered, they could better fulfill key elements of their mission: preaching God’s message for the last time throughout the world prior to the imminent Second Coming; gathering converts to Missouri, where they would find safety in Zion from the destruction that was to overtake the wicked; and ministering to the Saints. After a hiatus of more than nine months, JS renewed his journal keeping during this period of organization, purification, and preparation.
The Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; Carefully Selected from the Revelations of God. Compiled by Joseph Smith. 2nd ed. Nauvoo, IL: John Taylor, 1844. Selections also available in Robin Scott Jensen, Richard E. Turley Jr., Riley M. Lorimer, eds., Revelations and Translations, Volume 2: Published Revelations. Vol. 2 of the Revelations and Translations series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011).The longest of any of JS’s journals published herein, this volume records his activities in and aroundWhile JS,Warren Parrish, often mentioned in the journal as “my scribe.” Parrish was hired as scribe for JS on 29 October 1835. His duties included keeping JS’s journal and minutes of church meetings and copying certain materials into JS’s 1834–1836 history, which Oliver Cowdery had begun the prior year. Parrish’s first recorded journal entry is for 8 October 1835, suggesting that journal keeping was three weeks behind when he started. Parrish inscribed entries covering the next six weeks. The journal was in Parrish’s possession during at least part of the time he was inscribing it, and the practice may have been for the assigned scribe to retain possession during his tenure. JS recorded four reflective entries for December 19–22 and indicated in the last of those entries that Parrish was ill. JS then passed the journal to Williams, whose entries covered four days ending 26 December 1835. Parrish resumed scribal duties for four weeks’ entries, but then his ill health forced him to relinquish journal keeping to
10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...View Full BioSylvester Smith, who recorded the next two weeks’ entries. On 7 February 1836, Parrish then resumed his work, recording entries for the next eight weeks, with occasional help from an unidentified scribe who copied or kept minutes of church meetings. In early April, Parrish was preparing to leave
25 Mar. 1806–22 Feb. 1880. Farmer, carpenter, lawyer, realtor. Born at Tyringham, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Chileab Smith and Nancy Marshall. Moved to Amherst, Lorain Co., Ohio, ca. 1815. Married Elizabeth Frank, 27 Dec. 1827, likely in Chautauque...View Full Bio4Apparently Parrish’s scribal responsibilities for the journal and for JS’s 1834–1836 history were delegated at this time to
Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352. Also available as Wilford Woodruff’s Journals, 1833–1898, edited by Scott G. Kenney, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983–1985).Warren Cowdery, older brother of Oliver Cowdery. Cowdery used the first two months of material from the journal, 22 September to 18 November 1835, as the basis for a new section of the 1834–1836 history and also wrote the final two entries in the journal. Parrish’s mission departure was delayed until May.
17 Oct. 1788–23 Feb. 1851. Physician, druggist, farmer, editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Married Patience Simonds, 22 Sept. 1814, in Pawlet, Rutland Co. Moved to Freedom, Cattaraugus Co., New York, 1816...View Full Bio5It was apparently during this delay that Parrish retrieved the history and the journal from Cowdery and added a final two months of material from the journal, 18 November 1835 through 18 January 1836, to the history—probably before leaving for his missionary assignment. Parrish made no additional entries to the journal before returning it to JS. Thus the journal ended with Cowdery’s entries.
Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352. Also available as Wilford Woodruff’s Journals, 1833–1898, edited by Scott G. Kenney, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983–1985).Much of the material in the journal seems to have been dictated by JS to the scribe or recorded as JS spoke to various gatherings. For example, the entry for 21 January 1836 is apparently a dictation because it reports a vision seen only by JS. JS may have had the scribe read back his dictations to him in order to make corrections, as he had sometimes done six years earlier in dictating his translation of the Book of Mormon. In the 21 January entry, the scribe writes, “I am mistaken,” and a paragraph in the entry corrects a statement made earlier in the entry. A few days later,Parrishwrote to JS that he could not continue to keep the journal for a time. He explained, “Writing has a particular tendency to injure my lungs while I am under the influence of such a cough”—a possible indication that his scribal duties required reading aloud.
10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...View Full BioThe journal reveals aspects not only of the inner spiritual life and the religious fellowship that JS shared with church members and leaders but also of his relations with adherents of other religious persuasions. Various entries describe his interactions with Presbyterians, Methodists, a Baptist, a Universalist, and a Unitarian. The journal records a visit JS received from two followers of the British religious reformer Edward Irving as well as a visit from JS’s contemporaryThe journal also records several other revelations and visions. Of particular theological significance is the aforementioned 21 January 1836 vision of the “celestial kingdom” of heaven, with its revelation that “all who have died with[out] a knowledge of this gospel, who would have received it, if they had been permitted to tarry, shall be heirs of the celestial kingdom of God.”A number of entries in this journal relate to JS’s revelatory translation of Egyptian writings. In July 1835, JS and associates had purchased from aMichael Chandlerfour Egyptian mummies and some papyri unearthed at Thebes. Chandler had exhibited the artifacts in
Ca. 1798–21 Oct. 1866. Antiquities exhibitor, farmer. Born in Ireland. Married Frances F. Ludlow. Immigrated to U.S., ca. 1828. Moved to Ohio, by 1829. Moved to Philadelphia, 1833. Acquired eleven mummies, perhaps in association with others, in New York City...View Full BioClevelandand other locations and had heard of JS’s claims as a translator. This journal provides glimpses of JS’s early efforts in transcribing and translating material from the papyri and recounts that JS exhibited the papyri to associates and visitors. Journal entries refer to them as the “records of antiquity,” the “Egyptian manuscripts,” the “Egyptian records,” the “sacred record,” the “ancient records,” the “records of Abraham,” or simply “the records.” JS’s efforts led to publication in 1842 of a work that he introduced as “purporting to be the writings of Abraham.”
Cuyahoga Co. seat of justice, 1833. Situated on south shore of Lake Erie, just east of mouth of Cuyahoga River. First settled, 1797. Incorporated as village, 1815; incorporated as city, 1836. Became center of business and trade at opening of Ohio and Erie...More Info8
Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.The events of this journal, as in JS’s 1832–1834 journal, unfold in the shadow of the dual priorities of redeeming Zion and preparing the9In the third entry in this journal, JS himself recorded further plans and preparations forDaniel Dunklinfor support in reoccupying their Jackson County lands. JS and other church officers expressed determination to reenter Jackson County in spring 1836, at the risk of their lives if necessary. JS reported the beginning of efforts that same day to enlist a large volunteer army for this purpose
14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...View Full BioLatter-day Saints corresponded withDunklin, asking for his assistance and even suggesting that
14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...View Full BioUnited Statespresident Andrew Jackson be asked to rectify the Saints’ 1833 eviction from their
North American constitutional republic. Constitution ratified, 17 Sept. 1787. Population in 1805 about 6,000,000; in 1830 about 13,000,000; and in 1844 about 20,000,000. Louisiana Purchase, 1803, doubled size of U.S. Consisted of seventeen states at time ...More Info12
JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1-7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.Soon after receivingDunklin’s letter, the Latter-day Saints modified their short-term plans for13The church’s presidency intended to move to Missouri to direct the relocation.During the time covered in the journal, the immediate attention of Latter-day Saints was focused on northeasterntemplethat bore the name “the House of the Lord,” wherein the much-anticipated endowment and solemn assembly were to empower church officers in their ministry. Building the temple in Kirtland—which JS often referred to as the “chapel” or simply “the house”—had been a focal point since summer 1833, when a letter from JS,16By late 1835, the nine hundred Mormons in Kirtland, plus the two hundred living nearby, included skilled individuals recruited specifically for the building project, freeing JS to pursue spiritual, educational, and administrative matters. A temple committee composed of JS’s brother
JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1-7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.
Journal of Discourses. 26 vols. Liverpool: F. D. Richards, 1855–1886.Hyrum,
9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...View Full BioReynolds Cahoon, and
30 Apr. 1790–29 Apr. 1861. Farmer, tanner, builder. Born at Cambridge, Washington Co., New York. Son of William Cahoon Jr. and Mehitable Hodges. Married Thirza Stiles, 11 Dec. 1810. Moved to northeastern Ohio, 1811. Located at Harpersfield, Ashtabula Co.,...View Full BioJared Carteroversaw construction of the House of the Lord. The construction workers were compensated in part through goods available at the “
14 June 1801–6 July 1849. Born at Killingworth, Middlesex Co., Connecticut. Son of Gideon Carter and Johanna Sims. Moved to Benson, Rutland Co., Vermont, by 1810. Married Lydia Ames, 20 Sept. 1823, at Benson. Moved to Chenango, Broome Co., New York, by Jan...View Full BioPreparation for the promised endowment required much more than completion of thetemple. JS’s vision for a church prepared for its expansive mission included an extensive and well-organized priesthood hierarchy. After adding three assistants to the church’s presidency in December 1834,17JS further expanded his cadre of leaders. Drawn almost exclusively from the ranks of the 1834 expedition to
JS History, 1834–1836 / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1834–1836. In Joseph Smith et al., History, 1838–1856, vol. A-1, back of book (earliest numbering), 9–20, 46–187. CHL. CR 100 102, box 1, vol. 1.18Beginning in January 1836, JS worked to have every office and organization mentioned in the revelations fully staffed—to “set the different quorems in order.”David Whitmerand his counselors
7 Jan. 1805–25 Jan. 1888. Farmer, livery keeper. Born near Harrisburg, Dauphin Co., Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Raised Presbyterian. Moved to Ontario Co., New York, shortly after birth. Attended German Reformed Church. Arranged...View Full BioWilliam W. Phelpsand
17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...View Full BioJohn Whitmer. These three also often joined with the church’s presidency in Kirtland—JS,
27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...View Full BioHyrum Smith, and
9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...View Full BioPreparation of church officials for carrying out their responsibilities required ministerial training. This was accomplished in the Elders School, which was a revival of the earlier School of the Prophets. In early January 1836, an additional school was opened offering two months’ intensive study of biblical Hebrew under the tutelage of scholarJS insisted that in addition to being fully staffed and properly organized and trained, the church leadership must have unity and harmony.20A prerequisite to the endowment was a sanctification process that in turn required collegiality and love. JS faced significant challenges from within the hierarchy and his own family as he sought to establish this unity. During the apostles’ 1835 mission, JS and other leaders intempleconstruction while seeking funds forTo JS’s great dismay, his confrontations with his volatile younger brotherWilliam, an apostle in the church, contrasted starkly with JS’s ideals. The two strong-willed Smiths clashed in fall 1835. Harmony was not restored until
13 Mar. 1811–13 Nov. 1893. Farmer, newspaper editor. Born at Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Lebanon, Grafton Co., New Hampshire, 1811; to Norwich, Windsor Co., 1813; and to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, 1816...View Full BioAfter resolving differences among church leaders, the officers were ready to receive the rituals associated with the21This would have repeated the procedures followed at the organization of the initial School of the Prophets in 1833. Instead, JS organized the Elders School on 3 November 1835 without a solemn assembly, and the foot-washing ordinance was performed during a solemn assembly in the House of the Lord at the conclusion of a set of newly instituted ordinances. Before the Lord could “endow his servants,” recordedJohn Whitmer, “we must perform all the ordinances that are instituted in his house.”
27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...View Full BioOn 27 March 1836, before a general audience of church members, JS dedicated the newly completedTwo days after the dedication of theNow that theFor those officers who remained, the jubilee and the Passover were a week of visiting, feasting, prophesying, and pronouncing blessings on one another. During the Sunday worship service held 3 April 1836, the day for which the final entry in the journal was made, JS and
- 1 Revelation, 27–28 Dec. 1832 and 3 Jan. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 7:36, 1835 ed. [D&C 88:119]; Revelation, 1 June 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 95:1, 1835 ed. [D&C 95:2–3].
- 2 Angell, Autobiography, 14–15.
- 3 Revelation, 22 June 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 102:3, 1844 ed. [D&C 105:11]. For an account of the solemn assembly, see the journal entry for 30 March 1836.
- 4 Woodruff, Journal, 19 Apr. 1836.
- 5 Woodruff, Journal, 27 May 1836.
- 6 JS, Journal, 25 Jan. 1836.
- 7 JS, Journal, 21 Jan. 1836.
- 8 “The Book of Abraham,” Times and Seasons,1 Mar. 1842, 3:703–706; 15 Mar. 1842, 3:719–722; 16 May 1842, 3:783–784 [Abraham 1–5].
- 9 Revelation, 22 June 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 102, 1844 ed. [D&C 105].
- 10 JS, Journal, 24 Sept. 1835.
- 11 JS, Journal, 5 Oct. 1835.
- 12 Daniel Dunklin, Jefferson City, MO, to William W. Phelps et al., Kirtland, OH, 22 Jan. 1836, in JS History, vol. B-1, addenda, 3nH.
- 13 Whitmer, History, 83.
- 14 JS, Journal, 13 Mar. 1836.
- 15 Sidney Rigdon et al., Kirtland, OH, to Edward Partridge et al., Independence, MO, 25 June 1833, JS Collection, CHL.
- 16 JS History, vol. B-1, 553; Heber C. Kimball, in Journal of Discourses, 6 Apr. 1863, 10:165.
- 17 Entries for 5 and 6 Dec. 1834, in JS History, 1834–1836, 17–20.
- 18 JS, Kirtland, OH, to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, 4 Aug. 1835, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 90–93.
- 19 JS, Journal, 30 Jan. 1836.
- 20 See Revelation, 27–28 Dec. 1832 and 3 Jan. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 7, 1835 ed. [D&C 88]; and Instruction on Priesthood, ca. Apr. 1835, in Doctrine and Covenants 3:11–12, 1835 ed. [D&C 107:27–33].
- 21 JS, Journal, 5 Oct. 1835; Revelation, 27–28 Dec. 1832 and 3 Jan. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 7:45–46, 1835 ed. [D&C 88:138–141].
- 22 Whitmer, History, 83.
- 23 JS, Journal, 29 and 30 Mar. 1836.
- 24 JS, Journal, 2 Apr. 1836.
A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...View Glossary