30494

Letter to Edward Partridge, 5 December 1833

and being prepared they poured a deadly fire upon them, two of their number fell dead on the ground and a number mortally wounded among the former was Breazel Hugh Breazele

Ca. 1803–4 Nov. 1833. Lawyer. Moved to Roane Co., Tennessee, by 1826. Married Amanda M. King, 15 Feb. 1827, in Roane Co. Traveled to Independence, Jackson Co., Missouri, to participate in Mormon War, possibly at urging of brother-in-law, Austin A. King. Killed...

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4

Hyde’s account focused entirely on the battle that ensued around the Big Blue settlement during the late evening of 4 November 1833. Other accounts also depict these events. (See [Edward Partridge], “A History, of the Persecution,” Times and Seasons, Jan. 1840, 1:33–35; see also Pratt, History of the Late Persecution, 17–19; and Corrill, Brief History, 20.)  


Tuesday5

5 November 1833.  


morning there were a number of the Mob missing and could not be accounted for and while we was at Liberty landing

Principal commercial docking site for river steamboats and Everett’s Ferry. Located on north shore of Missouri River, about four miles south of county seat, Liberty. Established by 1830, replacing Allen’s Landing, which operated half mile west of this site...

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6

In 1833, Liberty landing was located on the north side of the Missouri River, approximately five miles south of Liberty in Clay County and due north of Independence. It was also known for a time as the Upper Liberty landing. (Parkin, “History of the Latter-day Saints in Clay County,” 39.)  


on wensday7

6 November 1833.  


a messenger rode up saying that he had Just came from the seat of war, and that the night before another battle was fought in which Mr Russell Hicks

Ca. 1805–19 Apr. 1876. Lawyer. Born in Massachusetts. Treasurer of Jackson Co., Missouri, 1827. Deputy clerk of Jackson Co. court, 1833. Permitted to practice law by Cass Co., Missouri, circuit court, 7 Dec. 1835. One of fourteen men who formed a company ...

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fell having three balls and some buck shot through his body and about twenty more shared a similar fate and also that one or two of our men were killed and as many wounded and he (Orson

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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) heard the cannonading distinctly8

No armed engagement took place in Jackson County on Tuesday, 5 November 1833. Church leaders decided to leave the county during the early morning hours of that day and surrendered their arms later in the afternoon. “I am happy to state,” Hyde later wrote, by way of correcting his earlier letter, “that I now believe that the report concerning the last engagement was without foundation.” Moreover, the cannonading he heard while on board the steamboat “was only an expression of the triumph and joy of the mob.” (“From Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Jan. 1834, 124–126; [Edward Partridge], “A History, of the Persecution,” Times and Seasons, Jan. 1840, 1:34–35; Orson Hyde, Letter to the Editor, The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 120, italics in original.)  


and also stated that the man who broke open the store

JS revelation, dated 20 July 1831, directed A. Sidney Gilbert, Newel K. Whitney’s Ohio business partner, to establish store in Independence. Gilbert first purchased vacated log courthouse, located on lot 59 at intersection of Lynn and Lexington Streets, to...

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took Sidney Gilbert

28 Dec. 1789–29 June 1834. Merchant. Born at New Haven, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Eli Gilbert and Lydia Hemingway. Moved to Huntington, Fairfield Co., Connecticut; to Monroe, Monroe Co., Michigan Territory, by Sept. 1818; to Painesville, Geauga Co...

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Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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, and one more for fals imprisonment and put them in prison and as near as he could Learn never to let them escape alive9

Orson Hyde, Letter to the Editor, The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 120; see also Letter from William W. Phelps, 6–7 Nov. 1833; Letter from John Corrill, 17 Nov. 1833; and “From Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Jan. 1834, 124–126.  


This statement of bro Orson

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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is some what different from that of bro Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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who states that on friday10

1 November 1833.  


night the brethren had mustered about 40 or 50 men armed and marched into the village took one prisoner and fired one gun11

The details that JS summarized here were omitted from the published, and only extant, version of Phelps’s 6–7 November 1833 letter. (See Letter from William W. Phelps, 6–7 Nov. 1833.)  


and satturday12

2 November 1833.  


fell upon our brethren above Blue

River rises in Indian Territory and flows northward into Missouri River in Jackson Co., Missouri. Mormon settlement established near river, Dec. 1831. Branch of LDS church established in area on opposite side of river from Kaw Township, by 1833; branch had...

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, and one of George Manship sons mortally wounded.13

A mob attacked a settlement of church members near the Blue River, located approximately eight miles southwest of Independence, on Saturday, 2 November. One of the attackers of the settlement, a young man named Manship, was shot during the skirmish and may have died as a result of the attack.  


On monday14

4 November 1833.  


about sun set a regular action was fought near Christian Whitmer

18 Jan. 1798–27 Nov. 1835. Shoemaker. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Married Anna (Anne) Schott, 22 Feb. 1825, at Seneca Co., New York. Ensign in New York militia, 1825. Constable of Fayette, Seneca Co., 1828–1829. Member...

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s under the command of bro D we had four wounded, they had five wounded and two killed viz Linvil Thomas Linville and Breaseal

Ca. 1803–4 Nov. 1833. Lawyer. Moved to Roane Co., Tennessee, by 1826. Married Amanda M. King, 15 Feb. 1827, in Roane Co. Traveled to Independence, Jackson Co., Missouri, to participate in Mormon War, possibly at urging of brother-in-law, Austin A. King. Killed...

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.15 From friday till tuesday16

1–5 November 1833.  


our brethren were under arms 150 of our brethren came forth Like Moroni to battle,17

See Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 340–407 [Alma chaps. 43–63].  


on tuesday18

5 November 1833.  


morning the mob had 300 and before any blood [p. 66]
and being prepared <they> poured a dreadful  deadly fire upon them, two of their number  fell dead on the ground and a number  mortally wounded among the former was Breazel [Hugh Breazele]

Ca. 1803–4 Nov. 1833. Lawyer. Moved to Roane Co., Tennessee, by 1826. Married Amanda M. King, 15 Feb. 1827, in Roane Co. Traveled to Independence, Jackson Co., Missouri, to participate in Mormon War, possibly at urging of brother-in-law, Austin A. King. Killed...

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4

Hyde’s account focused entirely on the battle that ensued around the Big Blue settlement during the late evening of 4 November 1833. Other accounts also depict these events. (See [Edward Partridge], “A History, of the Persecution,” Times and Seasons, Jan. 1840, 1:33–35; see also Pratt, History of the Late Persecution, 17–19; and Corrill, Brief History, 20.)  


[illegible]  Tuesday5

5 November 1833.  


morning there were a number of the Mob  missing and could not be accounted for and  while we was at Liberty landing

Principal commercial docking site for river steamboats and Everett’s Ferry. Located on north shore of Missouri River, about four miles south of county seat, Liberty. Established by 1830, replacing Allen’s Landing, which operated half mile west of this site...

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6

In 1833, Liberty landing was located on the north side of the Missouri River, approximately five miles south of Liberty in Clay County and due north of Independence. It was also known for a time as the Upper Liberty landing. (Parkin, “History of the Latter-day Saints in Clay County,” 39.)  


on wensday7

6 November 1833.  


 a messenger rode up saying that he had Just  came from the seat of war, and that the  night before another battle was fought in  which Mr [Russell] Hicks

Ca. 1805–19 Apr. 1876. Lawyer. Born in Massachusetts. Treasurer of Jackson Co., Missouri, 1827. Deputy clerk of Jackson Co. court, 1833. Permitted to practice law by Cass Co., Missouri, circuit court, 7 Dec. 1835. One of fourteen men who formed a company ...

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fell having three balls  and some buck shot through his body and  about twenty more shared a similar fate  and also that one or two of our men were killed  and as many wounded and he (Orson

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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) heard  the cannonading distinctly8

No armed engagement took place in Jackson County on Tuesday, 5 November 1833. Church leaders decided to leave the county during the early morning hours of that day and surrendered their arms later in the afternoon. “I am happy to state,” Hyde later wrote, by way of correcting his earlier letter, “that I now believe that the report concerning the last engagement was without foundation.” Moreover, the cannonading he heard while on board the steamboat “was only an expression of the triumph and joy of the mob.” (“From Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Jan. 1834, 124–126; [Edward Partridge], “A History, of the Persecution,” Times and Seasons, Jan. 1840, 1:34–35; Orson Hyde, Letter to the Editor, The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 120, italics in original.)  


and also stated  that the man who broke open the store

JS revelation, dated 20 July 1831, directed A. Sidney Gilbert, Newel K. Whitney’s Ohio business partner, to establish store in Independence. Gilbert first purchased vacated log courthouse, located on lot 59 at intersection of Lynn and Lexington Streets, to...

More Info
took  [Sidney] Gilbert

28 Dec. 1789–29 June 1834. Merchant. Born at New Haven, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Eli Gilbert and Lydia Hemingway. Moved to Huntington, Fairfield Co., Connecticut; to Monroe, Monroe Co., Michigan Territory, by Sept. 1818; to Painesville, Geauga Co...

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Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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, and one more for fals imprisonment  and put them in prison and as near as he  could Learn never to let them escape alive9

Orson Hyde, Letter to the Editor, The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 120; see also Letter from William W. Phelps, 6–7 Nov. 1833; Letter from John Corrill, 17 Nov. 1833; and “From Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Jan. 1834, 124–126.  


 This statement of bro Orson

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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is some what  different from that of bro Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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who states  that on friday10

1 November 1833.  


night the brethren had  mustered about 40 or 50 men armed and  marched into the village took one prisoner  and fired one gun11

The details that JS summarized here were omitted from the published, and only extant, version of Phelps’s 6–7 November 1833 letter. (See Letter from William W. Phelps, 6–7 Nov. 1833.)  


and satturday12

2 November 1833.  


fell upon  our brethren above Blue

River rises in Indian Territory and flows northward into Missouri River in Jackson Co., Missouri. Mormon settlement established near river, Dec. 1831. Branch of LDS church established in area on opposite side of river from Kaw Township, by 1833; branch had...

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, and one of [George] Manship  sons mortally wounded.13

A mob attacked a settlement of church members near the Blue River, located approximately eight miles southwest of Independence, on Saturday, 2 November. One of the attackers of the settlement, a young man named Manship, was shot during the skirmish and may have died as a result of the attack.  


On monday14

4 November 1833.  


about  sun set a regular action was fought near  Christian Whitmer

18 Jan. 1798–27 Nov. 1835. Shoemaker. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Married Anna (Anne) Schott, 22 Feb. 1825, at Seneca Co., New York. Ensign in New York militia, 1825. Constable of Fayette, Seneca Co., 1828–1829. Member...

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s under the command of  bro D we had four wounded, they had  five killed wounded and two killed viz Linvil [Thomas Linville]  and Breaseal

Ca. 1803–4 Nov. 1833. Lawyer. Moved to Roane Co., Tennessee, by 1826. Married Amanda M. King, 15 Feb. 1827, in Roane Co. Traveled to Independence, Jackson Co., Missouri, to participate in Mormon War, possibly at urging of brother-in-law, Austin A. King. Killed...

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.15 From friday till tuesday16

1–5 November 1833.  


our  brethren were under arms 150 of our brethren  came forth Like Moroni to battle,17

See Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 340–407 [Alma chaps. 43–63].  


on tuesday18

5 November 1833.  


 morning the mob had 300 and before any [blood] [p. 66]
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JS wrote this 5 December 1833 letter in response to the heartrending and sometimes conflicting reports he received about the violence against church members in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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, Missouri, that took place in early November 1833. The inconsistent reports were only the latest frustration for JS, who continued to agonize over the fate of friends and followers in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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, whose efforts to build a “New Jerusalem

The Book of Mormon indicated that, in preparation for Jesus Christ’s second coming, a city should be built on the American continent and called the New Jerusalem. The Book of Mormon further explained that the remnant of the seed of Joseph (understood to be...

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” had stalled in the summer of 1833 because of persecution.1
Following armed conflict on 4 November 1833, antagonistic residents and militia of Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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forced members of the Church of Christ

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

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to vacate their properties and flee to Clay County

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

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, Missouri, and elsewhere over the next few weeks.2 In the midst of the violence, Orson Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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and John Gould

21 Dec. 1784–25 June 1855. Pastor, farmer. Born in New Hampshire. Married first Oliva Swanson of Massachusetts. Resided at Portsmouth, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire, 1808. Lived in Vermont. Moved to northern Pennsylvania, 1817. Served as minister in Freewill...

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left Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

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, Missouri, for Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, Ohio, on 6 November 1833 to report to JS on recent hostilities.3

“The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 118.  


While traveling from Independence to Boonville, Missouri, on the Missouri River

One of longest rivers in North America, in excess of 3,000 miles. From headwaters in Montana to confluence with Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri River drains 580,000 square miles (about one-sixth of continental U.S.). Explored by Lewis and Clark...

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on board the steamboat Charleston, Hyde wrote at least two letters to newspaper editors in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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informing them of the violent events in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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: on 8 November he wrote to the editor of the Boonville Herald, and the following day he wrote to the editor of the Missouri Republican.4

It is unknown whether a complete copy of Hyde’s published letter to the editor of the Boonville Herald still exists. However, Oliver Cowdery included at least a partial copy of the letter in The Evening and the Morning Star. (“The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 118; see also “Civil War in Jackson County!,” Missouri Republican [St. Louis], 12 Nov. 1833, [3].)  


Upon arriving in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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on 25 November, Hyde and Gould informed JS of “the melencholly intelegen [intelligence] of the riot in Zion

JS revelation, dated 20 July 1831, designated Missouri as “land of promise” for gathering of Saints and place for “city of Zion,” with Independence area as “center place” of Zion. Latter-day Saint settlements elsewhere, such as in Kirtland, Ohio, became known...

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.”5

JS, Journal, 25 Nov. 1833; see also “More Trouble in the Mormon Camp,” Painesville (OH) Telegraph, 29 Nov. 1833, [3].  


On 6 November 1833, the same day that Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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and Gould

21 Dec. 1784–25 June 1855. Pastor, farmer. Born in New Hampshire. Married first Oliva Swanson of Massachusetts. Resided at Portsmouth, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire, 1808. Lived in Vermont. Moved to northern Pennsylvania, 1817. Served as minister in Freewill...

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left Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

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, William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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began writing a letter to JS to inform him of the recent events in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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. The next day he completed his letter and reported that mobs had begun to force church members to leave their homes in Jackson County—information that Hyde and Gould may not have known. Although Phelps’s original letter no longer exists, according to the letter featured here, Phelps’s missive arrived in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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before 5 December 1833. The most complete known version of Phelps’s letter was published by Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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in the December 1833 issue of The Evening and the Morning Star.6 The letter from JS featured here discusses information that appears to have been conveyed only through Phelps’s original letter—information that Cowdery, perhaps waiting for confirmation of the Mormon evacuation from Jackson County, did not include in the published version.
Some of the information conveyed in Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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’s letter apparently conflicted with the report Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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sent to the editor of the Missouri Republican, to which JS by this time had access. Perhaps because the information he received was inconsistent, and possibly in an effort to document the violence against his followers, JS wrote this 5 December letter urging church leaders in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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to “collect every particular concerning the Mob from the begining and send us a correct statement of fact as they transpired.” Until then, he wrote, “it is difficult for us to advise.” Even without clarification, JS told the Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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church leaders that if they had not yet been driven out they should fight to stay on their lands as long as they could: “You should maintain the ground as Long as there is a man Left. . . . it was right in the sight of God that you contend for it to the last.”7

JS had earlier instructed church members in an 18 August 1833 letter to not sell their land in Jackson County. (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 18 Aug. 1833.)  


Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

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copied this 5 December letter into JS’s letterbook and concluded by inscribing “E Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

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” on the final line, indicating that the original letter was most likely addressed to Edward Partridge. It is clear, however, that this letter was intended for church leaders in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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generally. Unfortunately, the original letter is no longer extant, and it is unknown if Partridge or any other church leader in Missouri ever received this correspondence.
Even though JS’s letter requested clarification and accurate information from church leaders in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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, Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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, who was then in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, was able to quickly respond to some of JS’s concerns. Hyde wrote another letter to Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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, the editor of The Evening and the Morning Star, which corrected parts of his earlier missive to the editors of the Boonville Herald. Oliver Cowdery published Hyde’s second letter in the same December issue of the Star that published Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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’s 6–7 November letter and an extract of Hyde’s letter to the Boonville Herald.8

Orson Hyde, Letter to the Editor, The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 120.  


It is not known precisely when or why Hyde wrote his corrective letter, though he may have done so at the behest of JS or to alleviate JS’s concerns, expressed in the letter featured here, about the inconsistent information he had heard about events in Missouri. By 10 December 1833, JS received correspondence from Missouri that provided more information about the persecution and expulsion of church members in that place. Given that Hyde arrived in Kirtland in late November and that the first Kirtland issue of the Star was prepared for printing no sooner than 18 December,9

JS, Journal, 25 Nov. and 18 Dec. 1833.  


Hyde would have had sufficient time to consult these letters from Missouri that arrived in Kirtland by 10 December,10 consider his previous statements, and prepare an amended account for publication in the Star.

Facts