Journal, 1832–1834

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

Joseph Smith 1832 . < 3–4 > [front cover]
27 November 1832 • Tuesday
Joseph Smith Jrs— Record Book Baught for to note all the minute circumstances that comes under my observation
Joseph Smith Jrs Book for Record Baught on the 27th of November 1832 for the purpose to keep a minute acount of all things that come under my obsevation &c— —
oh may God grant that I may be directed in all my thaughts O bless thy Servent Amen [p. 1]
28 November 1832 • Wednesday
November 28th this day I have [spent?] in reading and writing this Evening my mind is calm and serene for which I thank the Lord
29 November 1832 • Thursday
November 29th this day road from to to see my Sister and also came to see my Sister and found them all [well?]
this Evening Brother Prophcyed tha[t] next spring I should go to the city of to establish a and within one year I should go to the city of the Lord spare me the life of thy servent Amen [p. 2]
30 November 1832 • Friday
November 30th 1830 [1832] this day returned home to found all well to the Joy and satisfaction of my soul on my return home stopped at Mr Kings bore testmony to him and Family &c—
1 December 1832 • Saturday
December 1th <bore testimony to mr Gilmore> wrote and corrected revelations &c
2 December 1832 • Sunday
December 2th the sabath went to went to meeting &c
3 December 1832 • Monday
December 3d with my own also came to see me from the East & braught news from Brother and &c. also held a in the Evening Br Jese and Mogan and was excommunicated from the church &c— [p. 3]
4 December 1832 • Tuesday
December 4th this day I been unwell done but litle been at home all day regulated some of my things this Evening feel better in my mind then I have for a few days back Oh Lord deliver out thy servent out of temtations and fill his heart with wisdom and understanding
5 December 1832 • Wednesday
December 5th this day wrote leters copying letters and translating and in evening held a council to advise with Brother it was ordered by the council that he should be a companion with Brothe[r] in the work of the ministry
6 December 1832 • Thursday
December 6th translating and received a Revelation explaining the Parable the wheat and the tears [tares] &c [p. 4]

Editorial Note
Ten months passed before JS wrote another entry. In that period he dictated several revelations as he continued revising the Bible, completing his work in July 1833. Organizing and meeting with the School of the Prophets occupied much of his time from January through April. In June, JS and the presidency developed plans for temples in and and for expanded Mormon settlement in each city. In August, JS learned that during the previous month vigilantes had destroyed the church’s printing office and store in and that the Missouri Latter-day Saints had signed an agreement to evacuate Jackson County by spring 1834. In September, JS helped organize efforts in Kirtland to resume the church’s printing operations. JS renewed his journal keeping in October 1833 as he prepared to proselytize in northeastern Pennsylvania, western , and . After he returned to Kirtland a month later, journal entries continued for several weeks.

4 October 1833 • Friday
October 4th <1833> makeing preperation to go East with
A request of Brother to call on his Brother in Law Peter Worrin upper Cannada
Richard Lyman request of
5 October 1833 • Saturday
5th this day to the East came to <stayed>
6–12 October 1833 • Sunday–Saturday
6th arrived at <on the sabbath > found the Brotheren in meeting spake to the people &c— and in the [p. 5] <Evening> held a meeting at a had a great congregation paid good attention Oh God Seal our te[s]timony to their hearts Amen continued at untill tuesday the 8th Journeyed that day to at taried there over night came the next day to a tavern the next day thursday the 10th we ar[ri]ved at es at the breatheren by a previous appointment met there for meeting we spake to them as the spirite gave [p. 6] utterence they were greatly gratifyed they appeared to be strong in the faith left there friday the 11 and came to the house of an infidel by the Name of Nash reasond with him but to no effect came Saturday the 12th [to?] the house of of I feel very well in my mind the Lord is with us but have much anxiety about my family &c;—
13 October 1833 • Sunday
Sunday the 13th held a meeting hald at had a large congregation preached & I bear record to the people the Lord gave his spirit in [p. 7] marvilous man[n]er for which I am thankful to the god of Ab[r]aham Lord bless my family and preserve them
14–18 October 1833 • Monday–Friday
Monday 14th at the same place this day expect to start for Lord be with us on our Journy Amen &c monday evening arived at had an appointment preached to a small congregation made an appointment for tuesday at 10 o clock the 15th the meeting was appointed to be held in the Presbeterian meeting house [p. 8] but when the hour arived the man who kept the key of the house refused to open the door the meeting was thus prevented we came immedeately away and left the people in great confusion journeyed till satturday friday 17 [18] Arived at ’s in having after we came into passed through a very fine country and f well cultivated and had many peculiar feelings in relation to both the country and people we were kindly received at s [p. 9]
20–25 October 1833 • Sunday–Friday
On Sunday the 19th [20th] held meeting at on Sunday at 10 o clock to a very attentive congregation at candle lighting the same evening held meeting at where lived to a very large congregation which gave good heed to the things which were spoken what may be the result we cannot tell but the p[r]ospect is flattering this morning Monday the 20 [21] . enjoy pretty good [p. 10] health with good prospects of doing good calculate to stay in till the Monday of next week then the Lord willing will start for home. left tuesday and arived at the Village of held meeting at candle lighting the evening was very bad snowing vehemently we were publickly opposed by a Wesleyen Methodist he was very tumultious but destitute of reason or knawledge he would not [p. 11] give us an oppertunity to reply this was on the 22nd we find that conviction is resting on the minds of some we hope that great good may yet be done in which O Lord grant for thy names sake. during our stay at we [had?] an interview with a Mr Wilkeson of the methodist order being a leader in that sect he could not stand against our words whether he will receive the the truth the Lord only knows he seemed to [be?] honest [p. 12] Written at wednesday morning the 23 at the house of a Mr Bemer left s on thursday 24 came to held meeting at 1 o clock to spoke to a small congregation being a very wet day after meeting returned to and held meeting at at candle lighting to a large congregation one man declared his full beleif in the truth of the work is with who is also convinced to be on sunday great excitement [p. 13] prevailes in every place where we have been the result we leave in the hand of God. written at the house of in on friday morning the 24th [25th] this afternoon at Mr Pattricks expect to hold a Meeting this Evening &c— people very superstitious Oh God esta[b]lish thy word among this people held a meeting this Evenning had an attentive conngregation the spirit gave utterance [p. 14]
26 October 1833 • Saturday
Saterday 25th [26th] held a meeting at the people very tender
27–28 October 1833 • Sunday–Monday
Sunday 26 [27] held a meeting in . to a large congregation twelve came forward and was and many more were deeply impressed appointed a meeting for this day monday the 27 [28] at the request of some who desires to be baptized at candle lighting held a meeting for we for the gift of the holy spirit had a good [p. 15] meeting the spirit was given in great to power to some and the rest had great pease peace may God carry on his work in this place till all shall know him Amen. Held meeting yesterday at 10 o clock after meeting two came forward and were baptized confirmed them at the watters edge held meeting last evening br to the office of had a good meeting one of the sisters got the [p. 16] gift of toungues which made the saints rejoice may God increse the gifts among them for his sons sake this morning we bend our course for home may the Lord prosper our journey Amen
29 October 1833 • Tuesday
Tuesday the 29th left for home
30–31 October 1833 • Wednesday–Thursday
30th continued on our Journy Wensday and on Thirsday 31st arrived at
1–4 November 1833 • Friday–Monday
Friday 32th Started from [p. 17] Friday, November 1. Left <Nove> , N. Y. at 8 o’clock A.M. and Monday the 4th at 10 , A.M. found my family all well according to the promise of the Lord . for which blessings I feel to thank his holy name ; Amen.
5–13 November 1833 • Tuesday–Wednesday
November 13th nothing of of note transpired from the 4th of Noveber u[n]til this day in the morning at 4 Oh clock I was awoke by Brother Davis knocking at <my> door saying Brother Joseph [p. 18] come git <up> and see the signs in the heavens and I arrose and beheld to my great Joy the stars fall from heaven yea they fell like hail stones a litteral fullfillment of the word of God as recorded in the holy scriptures and a sure sign that the coming of Christ is clost at hand Oh how marvellous are thy works Oh Lord and I thank thee for thy me[r]cy unto me thy servent Oh Lord save me in thy kingdom for Christ sake Amen [p. 19]
14–19 November 1833 • Thursday–Tuesday
November 19th from the 13th u[n]till this date of nothing of note has transpired since the great sign in the heavins this day my <hart> is somewhat sorrowfull but feel to trust in the Lord the god of Jacob I I have learned in my travels that man is trecheous [treacherous] and selfish but few excepted is a man whom I love but is not capab[le] of that pure and stedfast love for those who are his benefactors as should posess possess the breast of an man a of the [p. 20] this with some other little things such as a selfish and indipendance of mind which to[o] often manifest distroys the confidence of those who would lay down their lives for him but notwithstanding these things he is <a> very great and good man a man of great power of words and can <gain> the friendship of his hearrers very quick he is a man whom god will uphold if he will continue faithful to his calling O God grant that he may for the Lords sake Amen [p. 21] the man who willeth to do well we should extall his virtues and speak not of his faults behind his back a man who willfuly turneth away from his friend without a cause is not lightly <easily> to be fogiven <forgiven.> the kindness of a man <should> is never to be forgotten that person who never forsaketh his trust should ever have the highest place for regard in our hearts and our love should never fail but increase more and more and this my disposition and sentiment &c Amen [p. 22] is a man who is one of those men in whom I place the greatest confidence and trust for I have found him ever full of love and Brotherly kindness he is not a man of many words but is ever wining because of his constant mind he shall ever have place in my heart and is ever intitled to my confidence He is perfectly honest and upright , and seeks with all his heart to magnify his presidency in the church of ch[r]ist , but fails in many instances , in consequence of a lack <want> of confidence in himself : God grant that he may [p. 23] overcome all evil : Blessed be , for he shall never want a friend; and his generation after him shall flourish. The Lord hath appointed him an inheritance upon the land of . Yea, and his head shall blossom< . And he shall be> as an olive branch that is bowed down with fruit : even so ; Amen.
And again, blessed be , also, notwithstanding he shall be high and lifted up, yet he shall bow down under the yoke like unto an ass that [p. 24] coucheth beneath his burthen; that learneth his master’s <will> by the stroke of the rod: thus saith the Lord. Yet the Lord will have mercy on him, and he shall bring forth much fruit; even as the vin vine of the choice grape when her clusters are <is> ripe, before the time of the gleaning of the vintage: and the Lord shall make his heart merry as with sweet wine because of him who putteth forth his hand and lifteth him up from <out of> deep mire, and pointeth him out the way, and guideth his [p. 25] feet when he stumbles; and humbleth him in his pride. Blessed are his generations. Nevertheless, one shall hunt after them as a man hunteth after an ass that hath strayed in the wilderness, & straitway findeth him and bringeth him into the fold. Thus shall the Lord watch over his generation that they may be saved: even so; Amen.
Retrospective Note regarding Baptisms
on the 13th and 14th days of October the I the following person in in viz [p. 26]
Andrew Rose
Harvey John Cooper
Mary Gates
Mary Birch [Burtch]
Elisabeth Gibbs
Phebe Cook
Margrett Birch [Margaret Burtch]
Esthe Birch [Esther Burtch]
25 November 1833 • Monday
25th Nove. Brothe[r] & [p. 27] returned from and of the riot in Zion with the inhabitants in pers[e]cuting the breth[r]en.
4–6 December 1833 • Wednesday–Friday
the 4th Dec commenced distributing the type. and commenced setting on the 6 and being prepared to commenced commence our Labours in the printing buisness I ask God in the [p. 28] name of Jesus to establish it for ever and cause that his word may speedely go for[th] t[o] the Nations of the earth to the accomplishing of his great work in bringing about the
22 November 1833 • Friday
Nov 22d— 1833 my brother came to live with me and also Learn th[e] printing art [p. 29]
9 December 1833 • Monday
on the 9 of Dec bro came to board with me to board rent & Lodge at one dollar & twenty five cents p[er] week
11 December 1833 • Wednesday
Bro Wilbor [Wilbur] Denton came to board 11 Dec at one Dollar and twenty five cents p[e]r week
18 December 1833 • Wednesday
1833 Dec. 18 This day the Elders assembled togeth[er] in the [p. 30] and then proceded to bow down before the Lord and dedicate the printing press and all that pertains thereunto to God by mine own hand and confirmed by bro and and then proceded to take the first proof sheet of the star edited by Bro blessed of the Lord is nevertheless there are [p. 31] are two evils in him that he must needs forsake or he cannot altogeth[er] escape the buffettings of the advers[ar]y if he shall forsak these evils he shall be forgiven and shall be made like unto the bow which the Lord hath set in the heavens he shall be a sign and an ensign unto the nations behold he is blessed of the Lord for his constancy [p. 32] and steadfastness in the work of the Lord wherefore he shall be blessed in his generation and they shall never be cut off and he shall be helped out of many troubles and if he keep the commandmend <commandments> and harken unto the <council of the> Lord his and his rest shall be glorious and again blessed of the Lord is and also and my brothers and my sisters for they shall [p. 33] yet find redemption in the and their of[f]springs shall be a blessing a Joy and a comfort unto them blessed is for her soul is ever fill[ed] with benevolence and phylanthropy and notwithstanding her age yet she shall receive strength and shall be comferted in the midst of her house and she shall have eternal life and blessed is for the hand of the Lord shall be [p. 34] over him for he shall see the affliction <of his children> pass away and when his head is fully ripe he shall behold himself as an olive tree whose branches are bowed down with much fruit he shall also possess a mansion on high blessed of the Lord is my brothe[r] for the integrity of his heart he shall be girt about with truth and faithfulness shall be the strength of his loins [p. 35] from generation to generation he shall be a shaft in the hand of his God to exicute Judgment upon his enemies and he shall be hid by the hand of the Lord that none of his secret parts shall be discovered unto his hu[r]t his name shall be accounted a blessing among men and when he is in trouble and great tribulation hath come upon him [p. 36] he shall remember the God of Jacob and he will shield him from the power of satan and he shall receive councl <councel> in the house of the most high that he may be streng[t]hened in hope that the goings <of his feet> may be established for ever blessed of the Lord is because the Lord shall say unto him Saml., Saml., therefore he shall be made a teache[r] in [p. 37] the and the Lord shall mature his mind in Judgment and thereby he shall obtain the esteem and fellowship of his brethren and his soul shall be established and he shall benefit th[e] because he shall obtain answer to prayer in his faithfulness— is as the firce Lion [p. 38] who devideth not the spoil because of his strength and in the pride of his heart he will neglect the more weightier weighty matters until his soul is bowed down in sorrow and then he shall return and call on th[e] name of his God and shall find forgivness and shall wax valient therefor he shall be saved unto the utter most and as the [p. 39] roaring Lion of the forest in the midst of his prey so shall the hand of his generation be lifted up against those who are set on high that fight against the God of Israel fearless and unda[u]nted shall they be in battle in avenging the rongs of th[e] innocent and relieving the oppressed therfor the blessings of the God of Jacob [p. 40] shall be in the midst of his house notwithstanding his rebelious heart and <now> O God let the residue of s house ever come up in remembrance before thee that thou mayest save them from the hand of the oppressor and establish their feet upon the rock of ages that they may have place in thy house and be saved in thy Kingdom [p. 41] and let all these things be even as I have said for Christs sake Amen
19 December 1833 • Thursday
Dec 19 This day Bros and took their Journey to the Land of for the purpose of bearing dispatches to the Brethren in that place from Kirtland o may God grant it a blessing for Zion as a kind Angel from heaven Amen [p. 42]
16 January 1834 • Thursday
January 16th 1834 this night at Brother came from home Oh Lord keep us and my Family safe untill I can return to them again Oh my God have mercy on my Bretheren in for Christ Sake Amen
11 January 1834 • Saturday
January 11, 1834. This evening Joseph Smith Jr., , , , , and united in prayer and asked the Lord to grant the following petition: [p. 43]
Firstly, That the Lord would grant that our lives might be precious in his sight, that he would watch over our persons and give his angels charge concerning us and our families that no evil nor unseen hand might be permitted to harm us.
Secondly, That the Lord would also hold the lives of all the , and not suffer that any of them shall be taken.
Thirdly, That the Lord would grant that our brother Joseph might prevail over [p. 44] his enemy, even , who has threatened his life, whom brother Joseph has <caused to be> taken with a precept; that the Lord would fill the heart of the Court with a spirit to do justice, and cause that the law of the land may be magnified in bringing him to justice.
Fourthly, That the Lord would provide, in the order of his Providence, the of this Church with means sufficient to discharge every debt that the Firm owes, in due season, that [p. 45] the Church may not be braught into disrepute, and the saints be afflicted by the hands of their enemies.
Fifthly, That the Lord would protect our printing press from the hands of evil men, and give us means to send forth his word, even his gospel that the ears of all may hear it, and also that we may print his scriptures; and also that he would give those who were appointed to conduct the press, wisdom sufficient that the cause [p. 46] may not be hindered, but that men’s eyes may thereby be opened to see the truth.
Sixthly, That the Lord would deliver , and in his scattered people, to possess it in peace; and also, while in their dispersion, that he would provide for them that they perish not with hunger nor cold. And finally, that God in the name of Jesus would gather his elect speedily, and unveil his face that his saints [p. 47] might behold his glory and dwell with him; Amen.
28 January 1834 • Tuesday
On the 13th of March A.D. 1833, came to my house; I conversed with him considerably about the book of Mormon. He was to the office of an in this Church under the hand of on the [blank] <18th> of March in the same year above written. According to my best recollection, I heard him say, in the [p. 48] course of conversing with him, that if he ever became convinced that the book of Mormon was false, he would be the cause of my destruction, &c.
He was tried before a counsel of on the 21st day of June , 1833 , and his restored to him again, it <he> previously having been taken by the Church at <cut off from the> Church by the . He was finally cut off from the church [p. 49] few days after having his license restored , on the 21st of June . and then saught the distruction of the sainst [saints] in this place and more particularly myself and family and as the Lord has in his mercy Delivered me out of his hand . till the present and also the church that he has not prevailed viz th[e] 28 day of Jany [p. 50] 1834 for which I off[e]r the gratitud of my heart to Allmighty God for the sam[e] and on this night and and my self bowed before the Lord being agre[e]d and united in pray that God would continu to deliver me and my brethr[e]n from <him> that he may not prevail again[st] us in the law suit that is pending [p. 51] and also that God would soften down the hearts of J[osiah] Jones & [Azariah] Lyman and also [Andrew] Bardsley that they might obey the gospel or if they would not repent that the lord would send faithful saints to purchase their farms that may be strengthened and <its> the borders enlarged O Lord grant it for Christ Sake Amen [p. 52]
31 January 1834 • Friday
31 Janry 1834 it is my prayer to the Lord that three thousand subscriber may be added to the Star in the term of three yea[rs]

Editorial Note
On 17 February 1834, JS organized a high council, which would serve “the purpose of settling important difficulties which might arise in the church.” A week later, on 24 February, the high council met at JS’s home to hear a report from and , envoys representing the Latter-day Saints in . When Wight and Pratt relayed the plight of their fellow exiles and expressed the desire of the Missouri Saints to return to their properties, JS “arose and said that he was going to Zion to assist in redeeming it.” A revelation dated the same day instructed eight men to travel east in pairs to solicit funds and recruit volunteers for an expedition to Missouri to reinstate exiled Mormons to their homes and property. The eight “journeyed two and two in different routes.” The revelation appointed JS to travel with Parley P. Pratt, Lyman Wight with , with , and with . Journal keeping resumed in late February as JS began his journey. For the next three weeks, JS and Pratt traveled together through western Pennsylvania and . The missionary pairs reunited at a conference in , New York, in mid-March.

26–28 February 1834 • Wednesday–Friday
Wensdy <Febuary> 26th to obtain Thursday 27th startted Started Stayed at 28th Stayed at a strangers who entertained us very kindly <<in> >
1–2 March 1834 • Saturday–Sunday
March 1th arived at and on the 2d the Sabath preached in this place and I preached in the evening had a good [p. 53] meeting there is a small church in this place tha[t] seem to be strong in th[e] faith Oh may God keep them in the faith and save them and lead them to
3 March 1834 • Monday
March 3d this morning intend to Started on our Journy to <the> east <But did not start> O may God bless us with the gift of utterance to accomplish the Journy and the Errand on which we are sent and return s◊◊ to the land of [p. 54] and <find> my Family all well O Lord bless my little children with health and long life to do good in th generation for Christs sake sake Amen
Geauger [Geauga] Ohio
Erie Pensyvania [Pennsylvania]
^ — —
Chautauque N[ew] york
Cateragus [Cattaraugus]
Genesee [actually Erie]
[p. 55]
Levingston [Livingston]
—— [actually Allegany]
Alleghany [actually Tioga]
Spafford <——> Onondaga
payed me on papers— $ 1.50

Editorial Note
The following section of the journal, through the beginning of the entry for 14 March, was kept by for both JS and himself as they traveled to . Pratt’s use of “I”—as in “I preached”—evidently refers to himself. Pratt refers to JS as “Brother Joseph” and never refers to himself in the third-person narrative voice.

Journal of and J[S]
4–6 March 1834 • Tuesday–Thursday
March 4th took our Journy from <accompanyed By > rode 33 miles arrived in [blank] <> staid all night with a , next morning went 4 m;s [miles] to found him and [p. 56] his house hold full of faith and of the holy spirit we cald the church together and Related unto them what had hapened to our Brethren in opened to them the prophesyes and revelations concerning the order of the to Zion and the means of her Redemtion and Brother Joseph Prophesyed to them and the spirit of the Lord came mightily upon them and with all redyness a the yo[u]ng and mid[d]le aged [p. 57] same evening held 2 meetings 3 or 4 miles Apart. next day March 6th held another Meeting at the few un Believeers that atended were outragious and the meeting ended in complaet confusion
7 March 1834 • Friday
we March 7 started towds on our Journy accompanyed By Leaving Brs and Mathews to Prepare <and gether up> the companys in the churches in that region and meet us in the first of May we arrived after dark to the [p. 58] county seat of cald triyed every tavern in the place But Being Court time we found no room But were compeled to ride on in a dark muddy rainy night we found shelter in rideing 1 mile Paid higher for our fare than tavern price
8 March 1834 • Saturday
March 8th continued our journy came to to the house of were Invited to go to Esq <walkers—>to spend the Evening [p. 59] we found them verry friendly and somewhat Believeing tarryed all night
9–12 March 1834 • Sunday–Wednesday
sunday 9 held meeting in a school house had great attentian found a few desyples who were firm in faith and after meeting found many Believeing and could hardly get a way from them we apointed A meeting in for Monday 10th and are now at in the full Enjoyment of <all> the Blessings Both temporal and spiritual [p. 60] of which we stand in need or are found worthy to receive held meting on [illegible] Monday moved Preachd to crowd <congregation> at Eve preacht again to a hous crowded full to overflowing after meting I proposed if any wished to obey if they would make it manifest we would stay to administer at another meeting a young man of the methodist order arose and testified his faith in the fulness of <the> gospel and desired to Be we Appointed another meting and the next [p. 61] day tuesday 11th held meeting and Baptised after which we rode 9 m;s [miles] Put up with . . . . . . . . <Stewards tavern> next day rode 36 m;s to s.
13 March 1834 • Thursday
16 <13> thursday held meting I Preachd
14 March 1834 • Friday
friday 14th in s
15 March 1834 • Saturday
March 15th at s and Brother and arived at his house to <the> Joy of our Souls in
16 March 1834 • Sunday
Sunday 16th preached to a very large congregation <in >
17 March 1834 • Monday
Monday 17 Brother [p. 62] Bro preached in the afternoon
18 March 1834 • Tuesday
Tusdy 18th Stayed at all day
19 March 1834 • Wednesday
Wensday 19th Started for home arrived at tarried all night &c
20 March 1834 • Thursday
Thursday 20th Started on <our> Journy at noon took dinner at Brother s, and at night tryed three times to git keept in the name of Deciples , and could not be keept, [p. 63] after night we found a man who would keep us for mony thus we see that there <is> more place for mony than for Jesus < Deciples or> the Lamb of God , the name of the man is Wilson Rauben Wilson Reuben Wilson that would not keep us without mony < he lived in > &c .
21 March 1834 • Friday
March 21th came to a man by the name of Starks 6th miles East of [p. 64]
22 March 1834 • Saturday
22d came and tarri[e]d with in Co— of Cattaraugus
23 March 1834 • Sunday
23d came to s the same Co NY held a meeting &c.
24 March 1834 • Monday
24th this <day> am not able to start for home but feel determined to go on the morrow morning
25 March 1834 • Tuesday
25th came from to in [p. 65] came with me
26 March 1834 • Wednesday
26th Came from to Stayed with Elder Hunt on free cost
27 March 1834 • Thursday
27th came to found and came to within 16 miles from
28 March 1834 • Friday
28th found my Family all well and the Lord be praised for this blessing
29 March 1834 • Saturday
29th at home had much [p. 66] Joy with <my> Family
30 March 1834 • Sunday
30th Sabbath at home and went to hear Preach the word of life &c.
31 March 1834 • Monday
31th Monday this day came to to [at]tend the Court against &c
1 April 1834 • Tuesday
32d Tusday this day at Brother Riders and the Court has not braught on our tryal yet we are ingaged in makeing out some supenies [subpoenas] &c for witness &c <this> is [p. 67] this Aprel 1st Tusday my Soul delighteth in the Law of the Lord for he forgiveth my sins and <will> confound mine Enimies the Lord shall destroy him who has lifted his heel against me even that wicked man he <will> deliver him to the fowls of heaven and his bones shall be cast to the blast of the wind <for> he lifted his <arm> against the Almity therefore [p. 68] the Lord shall destroy him
2–5 April 1834 • Wednesday–Saturday
Wednesday at , Thursday the same. Friday morning returned home. Saturday returned to <as witness for > in the evening returned home. , the State’s Att’y for called on me this evening: He is a gentlemanly appearing man , and treated me with respect.
7–9 April 1834 • Monday–Wednesday
on the 7th day of April Bros and myself meet [p. 69] in the councel room and bowed down befor the Lord and prayed that he would furnish the means to deliver the from debt and <be> set at liberty and also that I may prevail against that wicked and that he be put to shame accordingly on the 9 after an impartial trial the that the said was bound over under 200 dollers [p. 70] bond to keep the peace for six month and pay the cost which amounted to near three hundred dollers all of which was in answer to our prayer for which I thank my heavenly father
Remember to carry the bond between & and have them exchaingd when I go to
10 April 1834 • Thursday
on <Thursday> the 10 had a concel [council] [p. 71] of the at which it was agreed that the firm should be desolvd and each one have their stewardship set off to them
11 April 1834 • Friday
Fryday 11 atten<ded> meeting <and restored Father Tyler to the Church>
12 April 1834 • Saturday
Satterday 12 went to the Lake and spent the day in fishing and visiting the brethren in that place and took my horse from and let have him to keep
13 April 1834 • Sunday
13 Sunday was sick and could not attend meeting [p. 72]
14 April 1834 • Monday
Monday 14 purch[as]ed som hay and oats and got them home
15–17 April 1834 • Tuesday–Thursday
Tuesday 15 drawed a load of hay & <on Wensday 16> plowed and sowed oats for and on Thursday the 17 attended a meeting agreeable to appoint at which time the important subject<s> of the and the building of the in [p. 73] by after which bro Joseph arose and requested the brethren and sisters to contr[i]bute all the money they could for the deliverence of Zion and receved twenty nine dollers and sixty eight cts
18–19 April 1834 • Friday–Saturday
April 17 <18>, left in company with brothers , , <and> for to attend a . Travelled to ’ in [p. 74] and took dinner, after which we travelled on, and after dark were hailed by a man who desired to ride. We were checked by the Spirit and refused: he professed to be sick; but in a few minutes was joined by two others who followed us hard, cursing and swearing, but we were successful in escaping their hands through the providence of the Lord, and stayed at a tavern where we were treated with civility. Next morning, 19, started, and arrived at brother <in> [p. 75] , Medina county, where we took dinner. Bro. was strong in the faith— he is a good man and may, if faithful, do much good. After resting awhile, we left, and soon arrived at brother , in , where we were received with kindness.
We soon retired to the wilderness where we united in prayer and suplication for the blessings of the Lord to be given unto his church: We called upon the Father in the name of Jesus to go with the breth[r]en who were [p. 76] , to give brother Joseph strength, and wisdom, and understanding sufficient to lead the people of the Lord, and to gather back, and establish the saints upon the land of their inheritances, and organize them according to the will of heaven, that they be no more cast down forever. We then united and : Brothers , , and laid hands upon bro. Joseph, and upon him all the blessings necessary to qualify him to do <stand> before the Lord in his high calling; and [p. 77] he return again in peace and triumph, to enjoy the society of his breth[r]en. Brothers Joseph, , and then laid hands upon , and confirmed upon him the blessings of wisdom and understanding sufficient for his station; that he be qualified to assist in arranging the church covenants which are to be soon published; and to have intelligence in all things to do the work of printing. Brother Joseph, , then laid [p. 78] hands upon , and confirmed upon him the blessings of wisdom and knowledge to over the church in the abscence of brother Joseph, and to have the spirit to assist in conducting the Star, and to arrange the Church covenants, and the blessing of old age and peace, till is built up & established, till all his enemies are under his feet, and of a crown of eternal life at the <in the> Kingdom of God with us. [p. 79] We, Joseph, , and then laid hands upon , and confirmed the blessing of wisdom to preach the gospel, even till is <it> spreads to the islands of the seas, and to be spared to see th[r]eescore years and ten, and see Zion built up and established forever, and even at last to receive a crown of life. Our hearts rejoiced, and we were [p. 80] comforted with the Holy Spirit, Amen.
20 April 1834 • Sunday
18 20th. Sunday, Brother entertained a large congregation of saints, with an interesting discourse upon the “ of the fulness of times,” &c.
21–22 April 1834 • Monday–Tuesday
21. and had a glorious time, some few volunteered , and others donated $66.37. for the benefit of the scattered breth[r]en in .
Returned to on the 22d and found all well. [p. 81]
23 April 1834 • Wednesday
23. Assembled in council with breth[r]en , , , , and and united in asking the Lord to give bro. influence over our bro. , and obtain from him the money which he has gone to borow for us, or cause him to come to this place & give it himself.
30 April 1834 • Wednesday
April 30th this day paid the amount <sum> of fifty dollers on the following memorandom to the [p. 82] following persons viz
Record of Donations
Money received of the following brethren consecrated for the
By Lette[r] from East $10.,,
Do [ditto] " 50,,
Do " 100,,
[p. 83]
By Letter $07,,,
.5’’ ’’
.5’’ ’’
.5’’ ’’
Received of 47=00
Recived of Dexter Stillman 10=
Do. of 5=00
Do of 7=60
[8 lines blank] [p. 84]

Editorial Note
JS and other volunteers of the armed expeditionary force that had been recruited for “the restoration and redemption of Zion” departed for on 5 May 1834. A smaller contingent started from Pontiac, Michigan, and joined them at Allred settlement, Monroe County, Missouri. After learning on 15 June that Missouri governor would not order the state’s militia to escort the Mormons to their lands as the Mormons had hoped, JS’s company, now numbering some two hundred, nevertheless continued their march to , Missouri. Their approach prompted negotiations between Mormons exiled from Jackson County—now living in Clay County—and Jackson County residents. Compromise proved impossible given the entrenched positions of both sides: the Mormons insisted on maintaining their rights to return to their property and refused to sell, and Jacksonites refused to have the Mormons live among them. Local residents also prepared for armed confrontation with the advancing Mormons. When questioned about his intentions, JS disavowed any military offensive, and no armed confrontation materialized.
In mid-June a cholera epidemic began to make inroads among JS’s company. On 22 June, JS announced a revelation postponing the redemption of Zion “for a little season.” Zion would be redeemed only after the Latter-day Saints purchased additional land in and vicinity; after their leading elders were “endowed with power from on high” in ; and after the Mormons in found “favor in the eyes of the people, until the army of Israel becomes very great.” Thus JS maintained long-term hopes for a temporarily failed enterprise. The cholera-decimated Mormon troops were dispersed and soon discharged to remain in or—in most cases—to return eastward to their homes. JS organized a standing high council for the Missouri Mormons and selected a number of Missouri church leaders to be endowed in the then under construction in . JS and other members of the Camp of Israel expedition, which later became known as Zion’s Camp, returned to Ohio in early August. While JS did not keep a personal record during this time, he assigned to send periodic reports of their journey to in Kirtland. However, no such reports have survived. JS later oversaw the creation of a history that drew on others’ accounts to create a narrative of the journey.
In the wake of the failure to effect a return of Mormon refugees to , the Latter-day Saints’ highest priorities became completing the construction of their in and purchasing land in the vicinity of Jackson County. Both endeavors were understood to be prerequisites to returning to their Zion; both would impose great financial burdens.

21 August 1834 • Thursday
August 21st 1834. This day brother returned from and told us concerning the plague, and after much consultation we agreed that should go to and commence administering to the sick, for the purpose of obtaining means <blessings for them, and> for the work of <glory of> the Lord: Accordingly, we, Joseph, , and Oliver [Cowdery] united in prayer before the Lord for this thing. [p. 85]
Now, O Lord, grant unto us this <those> blessing<s>, in the name of Jesus Christ, and thy name shall have the glory forever; Amen.
30 August 1834 • Saturday
August 30, 1834. Received of the chu[r]ch by the hand of from the east of money $3,00
4 September 1834 • Thursday
Sept. 4, 1834. This day said that if he could obtain the management of his property in one year he would put it in for the printing of the word of the Lord. [p. 86]

Editorial Note
On 5 September 1834, JS left with to attend a conference of elders in , Ohio. In the second half of October, JS was again away from Kirtland, this time to visit the Latter-day Saints in Pontiac, Michigan. When in Kirtland, he continued to work on the church’s printing concerns and on building the .
On the evening of 28 November 1834, the day before this journal resumes, JS attended a high council meeting and heard from members of the Tippets family, who were en route to . In response to a December 1833 revelation that instructed church branches to “gather together all their moneys” and send “honorable men” to purchase lands in , the church in , New York, had sent the Tippetses with a letter to JS and $848.40 in donations of cash and property. The high council recommended that the migrants winter in and requested temporary financial help from them. and Caroline Tippets lent $430, to be paid back in the spring when they would resume their journey. This short-term financial assistance brought renewed hope and prompted the recording of prayers and resolutions.

29 November 1834 • Saturday
November 29. 1834. This evening Joseph and united in prayer for the continuance of blessings, after giving thanks for the relief which the Lord had lately sent us by opening the hearts of certain brethren from the east to loan us $430.
After conversing and rejoicing before the Lord on this occasion we agreed to enter into the following covenant with the Lord, viz:=
That if the Lord will [p. 87]
prosper us in our business, and open the way before <us> that we may obtain means to pay our debts, that we be not troubled nor brought into disrepute before the world nor his people, that after that of all that he shall give us we will give a tenth, to be bestowed upon the poor in his church, or as he shall command, and that we will be faithful over that which he has entrusted to our care and that we [p. 88]
may obtain much: and that our children after us shall remember to observe this sacred and holy covenant: after us: And that our children and our children’s may know of the same we here subscribe our names with our own hands before the Lord:
Joseph Smith Jr
And now, O Father, as thou didst prosper our father Jacob, and bless [p. 89] him with protection and prosperity where ever he went from the time he made a like covenant before and with thee; and as thou didst,— even the same night, open the heavens unto him and manifest great mercy and favor, and give him promises, so wilt thou do by us his sons; and as his blessings prevailed above the blessings of his Progenitors into the utmost bounds of the [p. 90] everlasting hills, even so may our blessings prevail above <like> his; and may thy servants be preserved from the power and influence of wicked and unrighteous men; may every weapon formed against us fall upon the head of him who shall form it; may we be blessed with a name and a place among thy saints here, and thy sanctified when they shall rest. Amen. [p. 91]
30 November 1834 • Sunday
Sabbath evening, November 30, 1834. While reflecting upon the goodness and mercy of the Lord, this evening, a prophecy was put into our hearts, that in a short time the Lord would arrange his providences in a merciful manner and send us assistance to deliver us from debt and bondage. [p. 92]
5 December 1834 • Friday
Friday Evening, December 5, 1834. According to the directions of the Holy Spirit breth[r]en Joseph Smith jr. , , and , assembled to converse upon the welfare of the church, when brother was of the under the hands of brother Joseph Smith jr. Saying, “My brother, in the name of Jesus Christ who died was crucified for the sins of the world, I upon thee, and ordain thee an assistant President of the high and holy p[r]iesthood in [p. 93]
[pages 94–97 blank] [p. 94]
[p. 95]
[p. 96]
[p. 97]
Joseph Smith
[15 lines blank] [p. 98]
[pages 99–102 blank] [p. 99]
[p. 100]
[p. 101]
[p. 102]

Editorial Note
Except for a few notes jotted in the back, this journal ends with the preceding 5 December 1834 entry. “Chapter 1” of JS’s 1834–1836 history consisted of a narrative in journal format for 5 and 6 December 1834, recorded by ; but that approach was then terminated. Not until late September 1835, nearly ten months later, did JS again keep a journal. Two priorities loomed in the intervening months: the redemption of Zion in and building a in for the promised endowment of power. During the interim, JS also expanded church leadership by forming the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and another organization called the Quorum of the Seventy, responsible for traveling and preaching. Men who had served in the expedition to Missouri made up most of the initial membership of both entities. When JS’s journal keeping resumed, it was more persistent, resulting in a coherent six-month narrative leading up to and including the empowerment in the House of the Lord in Kirtland, which the Latter-day Saints understood to be a prerequisite for the redemption of Zion.
The final three pages of this journal contain notes related to the events recorded in preceding journal entries. Subscriptions to The Evening and the Morning Star that were evidently solicited during JS’s 26 February–28 March 1834 mission are recorded on these pages. Following the subscriptions, a note was inscribed, apparently in preparation for the conference held 20–21 April 1834 at , Ohio.

Subscriptions to The Evening and the Morning Star
Please to send the Paper that Has forme[r]ly Be[e]n sent to John C◊◊p◊◊to send it Now to Nathan Chase at Cat[t]araugas County NY
Recieve of Elisha C Hubbard one Dollar for Papers < NY>
[illegible] [1/4 page blank] [p. 103]
1 paper Cattara[u]gus County
I have sent the money 25 cents by David Mo◊◊◊◊◊ an[d] he was to send the paper to Mis Taylor to but I wish to have it come in my name as above
Direct Samuel Mcbride & James Mcbride Papers to Nashville Postoffice Shitauqua [Chautauque] County
I wish you to send me one more Paper monthly and send one Monthly Paper to & Samuel & Richard Nickerson in the County of Barnstable Masachusetts
[p. 104]
The voice of the Spirit is, that speak to the congregation this day, first, Brother Joseph next, next. and if time .
Joseph Smith Jr [1/4 page blank] [p. 105]


  1. new scribe logo JS handwriting begins.  
  2. 1 Compare JS’s letter to William W. Phelps, written on the day the record book was purchased. Similar to his plea here, “that I may be directed in all my thaughts,” JS prayed in his letter to Phelps for the power to “gaze upon Eternal wisdom.” (JS, Kirtland, OH, to William W. Phelps, [Independence, MO], 27 Nov. 1832, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 1–4.)  
  3. 2 Katharine and her husband, Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury, had apparently settled in the Chardon area, near Calvin and Sophronia Smith Stoddard.  
  4. 3 TEXT: Faded word rendered as “and”.  
  5. 4 It is unclear whether Williams had accompanied JS or was in Chardon independently. Williams earlier owned property in Chardon and may have had medical patients or other connections there.a Williams’s prophecy may have been motivated by recent events. A month earlier, JS visited New York City, and Sidney Rigdon had recently organized a branch in Pittsburgh, where he had formerly served as the pastor of a congregation of Regular Baptists.b In 1845, Rigdon claimed that while on this mission to Pittsburgh he received a revelation that it would become a gathering center, which would require a bishopric there.c  (aCuyahoga Co., OH, Deeds and Mortgages, 1815–1866, vol. G-7, pp. 443–444, 23 Oct. 1828, microfilm 1,994,221, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.bJS, New York City, NY, to Emma Smith, Kirtland, OH, 13 Oct. 1832, CCLA; Van Wagoner, Sidney Rigdon, 26–29, 96.cSidney Rigdon, “History of Facts,” Messenger and Advocate of the Church of Christ, 15 June 1845, 235–237; see also “Letters from David and John C. Whitmer,” Saints’ Herald, 5 Feb. 1887, 90.)
  6. 5 Possibly David King, who owned property in Chester Township, which bordered Kirtland on the south. (Geauga Co., OH, Duplicate Tax Records: 1816–1850, Tax Record for 1831, p. 31, microfilm 506,576; Tax Record for 1832, p. 35; Tax Record for 1833, p. 32, microfilm 506,577, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  
  7. 6 In preparation for the publication of the Book of Commandments (a compilation of JS’s revelations), a church conference in November 1831 charged JS to “correct those errors or mistakes which he m[a]y discover by the holy Spirit while reviewing the revelations & commandments & also the fulness of the scriptures.” (Minute Book 2, 8 Nov. 1831; see also 30 Apr. 1832; and JS, Hyrum [Hiram, OH], to William W. Phelps, Zion [Independence], MO, 31 July 1832, JS Collection, CHL.)  
  8. 7 JS ordained Packard a priest at a conference of elders. (Minute Book 1, 3 Dec. 1832.)  
  9. 8 Earlier revelations assigned Humphrey, Johnson, and Pratt to proselytizing missions, with Johnson and Pratt as partners. (Revelation, 6 June 1831, in Book of Commandments 54:35 [D&C 52:35]; Revelation, 25 Jan. 1832, in Doctrine and Covenants 87:3, 1835 ed. [D&C 75:14].)  
  10. 9 “Jese” is probably Jesse Gause, JS’s counselor in the church presidency, who “denied the faith” sometime earlier in 1832.a JS became increasingly frustrated with McLellin throughout 1832. After McLellin failed to carry out a mission in the eastern states with JS’s brother Samuel, a January 1832 revelation rebuked him for the “murmurings of his heart” and instructed him to serve a mission in the southern states,b which he abandoned as well.c Soon thereafter, JS rebuked the Missouri Latter-day Saints for accepting McLellin into their “fellowship & communion.”d  (aMinute Book 2, 30 Apr. 1832; see also Quinn, “Jesse Gause,” 492.bRevelation, 25 Jan. 1832, in Doctrine and Covenants 87:2, 1835 ed. [D&C 75:6–8].cJS, Greenville, IN, to Emma Smith, Kirtland, OH, 6 June 1832, Manuscripts about Mormons at Chicago History Museum, Research Center, Chicago Historical Society.dJS, Hyrum [Hiram, OH], to William W. Phelps, Zion [Independence], MO, 31 July 1832, JS Collection, CHL.)
  11. 10 Probably the three 1829 letters from Oliver Cowdery that JS copied into his first letterbook. (See JS Letterbook 1, pp. 4–8.)  
  12. 11 On JS’s “New Translation,” or inspired revision, of the Bible, see Faulring et al., Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 3–13.  
  13. 12 A council of high priests met at Humphrey’s request to ascertain “the will of the Lord respcting him.” The council advised Humphrey to go to Parkman, Ohio, to begin a proselytizing mission with Packard. (Minute Book 1, 5 Dec. 1832.)  
  14. 13 Revelation, 6 Dec. 1832, in Doctrine and Covenants 6, 1835 ed. [D&C 86]. JS’s revision of the Bible prompted a number of revelations. (Matthews, “Doctrinal Connections,” 27–42.)  
  15. 14 New York Latter-day Saint Freeman Nickerson had traveled to Kirtland, Ohio, and persuaded JS and Sidney Rigdon to accompany him to Mount Pleasant, Upper Canada, to preach to members of his family. Frederick G. Williams explained that JS and Sidney Rigdon had “gone down the Lake to Niagara from thence expect to go into Canada as far as Long point U C and to preach in all the most noted places on the way.” (Gates, Lydia Knight’s History, 16–23; Berrett, Sacred Places, 2:249–250; Frederick G. Williams, Kirtland, OH, to “Dear Brethren,” Independence, MO, 10 Oct. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, p. 57.)  
  16. 15 TEXT: The first part of the entry for 4 October 1833 was initially inscribed in graphite and then retraced in ink—apparently by JS. The following material, written in heavier ink, was apparently inserted at a different time.  
  17. 16 Richard Lyman, the brother of John Smith’s wife, Clarissa Lyman Smith, was apparently residing in Cobourg, Hamilton Township, Upper Canada.  
  18. 17 This meeting may have been held in the home of Andrews and Elizabeth Comins Tyler. (Tyler, “Recollections of the Prophet,” 93; see also Hales, Windows, 101.)  
  19. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Sidney Rigdon begins.  
  20. 18 TEXT: A detached mark at this point could be read as an inserted “s” at the end of “spirite”.  
  21. 19 The 1830 U.S. Census, Portland Township, Chautauque Co., NY, 429, 434, identifies Ruel and Cotton Nash living in Portland, New York, a few miles east of Westfield.  
  22. new scribe logo Sidney Rigdon handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  23. 20 A revelation dated this day assured JS and Sidney Rigdon of the well-being of their families. (Revelation, 12 Oct. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 94, 1835 ed. [D&C 100].)  
  24. 21 A revelation dated the previous day promised JS and Rigdon that if they would “declare whatsoever things ye declare in my name, in solemnity of heart, in the spirit of meekness,” then the “Holy Ghost shall be shed forth in bearing record unto all things whatsoever ye shall say.” (Revelation, 12 Oct. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 94:2, 1835 ed. [D&C 100:7–8].)  
  25. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Sidney Rigdon begins.  
  26. 22 Freeman Nickerson; his wife, Huldah Chapman Nickerson; and their son Levi Nickerson accompanied JS and Sidney Rigdon to the home of Freeman and Huldah’s sons Eleazer Freeman Nickerson and Moses Nickerson in Mount Pleasant, Upper Canada. Eleazer Freeman Nickerson was often called Freeman. (Gates, Lydia Knight’s History, 15–16; Goddard, Mormons in Mount Pleasant, 2–6.)  
  27. 23 Probably Philip Beemer. (See Moses Nickerson, Wendhom, [Upper Canada], 29 Dec. 1833, Letter to the editor, The Evening and the Morning Star, Feb. 1834, 134; and Bennett, “Saints in Upper Canada,” 96.)  
  28. 24 Eliza McAlister Nickerson.  
  29. new scribe logo Sidney Rigdon handwriting ends; JS begins. The remainder of this entry and the entry for 26 October were first inscribed in graphite and traced over in ink—apparently by JS.  
  30. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Sidney Rigdon begins.  
  31. 25 Possibly Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey. (Gates, Lydia Knight’s History, 22.)  
  32. new scribe logo Sidney Rigdon handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  33. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Oliver Cowdery begins.  
  34. 26 Freeman and Huldah Chapman Nickerson accompanied JS and Sidney Rigdon from Mount Pleasant, Upper Canada, to Buffalo, New York. From Buffalo, the missionaries continued to Kirtland, Ohio, arriving there on 4 November “after a fateagueing journey.” (JS, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Moses Nickerson, Mount Pleasant, Upper Canada, 19 Nov. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 62–65.)  
  35. 27 On JS’s hopes for his family’s well-being and the revealed promise to that effect, see JS, Journal, 6–12 Oct. 1833; and Revelation, 12 Oct. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 94:1, 1835 ed. [D&C 100:1].  
  36. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  37. 28 Possibly Marvel Davis. (Kirtland Township Trustees’ Minutes and Poll Book, 21 Oct. 1833, p. 116, in Kirtland, Lake Co., OH, Minutes, microfilm 877,763, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  
  38. 29 This meteor display, caused by debris from comet Tempel-Tuttle, is one of the more spectacular of all recorded Leonid showers. It appears with especial intensity at about thirty-three-year intervals. Newspapers throughout the United States reported the incident. One described it as “a constant succession of fire balls, resembling sky rockets, radiating in all directions . . . leaving after them a vivid streak of light, and usually exploding before they disappeared. . . . The flashes of light, though less intense than lightning, were so bright as to awaken people in their beds.” (Littmann, Heavens on Fire, 272; Denison Olmsted, “The Meteors,” Maryland Gazette, 21 Nov. 1833, 2.)  
  39. 30 See, for example, Matthew 24:29; and Revelation 6:12–13; see also Revelation, Sept. 1830–A, in Book of Commandments 29:17 [D&C 29:14]; and Revelation, ca. 7 Mar. 1831, in Book of Commandments 48:36 [D&C 45:42]. In the wake of a worldwide cholera epidemic that killed millions, one commentator, referring to Revelation 6:13, considered the meteor shower “a sure forerunner—a merciful SIGN of that great and dreadful Day which the inhabitants of earth shall witness when the sixth seal shall be opened!” Like JS, the Missouri Latter-day Saints, who had just been driven from their homes in Jackson County, interpreted the meteor shower within a millenarian framework. (“Meteoric Phenomenon,” Oswego Palladium, 27 Nov. 1833, [2]; [Edward Partridge], Liberty, MO, to JS, [19] Nov. 1833, JS Collection, CHL; Parkin, “History of the Latter-day Saints in Clay County,” 44–47.)  
  40. 31 A 12 October 1833 revelation appointed Rigdon “a spokesman unto my servant Joseph” with “power to be mighty in testimony” and “in expounding all scriptures.” Rigdon had developed a reputation as a talented preacher while a Regular Baptist minister in Pittsburgh and then as a follower of Alexander Campbell, who later described Rigdon as “the great orator of the Mahoning [Reformed Baptist] Association.” After joining the Latter-day Saints, Rigdon became their most prominent orator. (Revelation, 12 Oct. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 94:3, 1835 ed. [D&C 100:9–11]; Alexander Campbell, “Anecdotes, Incidents, and Facts,” Millennial Harbinger, Sept. 1848, 523; Van Wagoner, Sidney Rigdon, 22–30.)  
  41. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Oliver Cowdery begins.  
  42. 32 More extensive transcripts of JS’s revelatory-prophetic blessings for Rigdon and Williams, the two men closest to him in church leadership, are recorded in Patriarchal Blessings, 1:13. JS blessed Oliver Cowdery, the other general church leader, on 18 December 1833, as recorded in this journal. Transcriptions of these blessings will be published under their date in The Joseph Smith Papers, Documents series.  
  43. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting ends; Frederick G. Williams begins.  
  44. 33 The date of these baptisms is incorrect. On 13 and 14 October, JS was at the home of Freeman Nickerson in Perrysburg, New York. The baptisms referred to here took place on 27 and 28 October at Mount Pleasant, Upper Canada, the residence of Nickerson’s son Eleazer Freeman Nickerson. Scribe Frederick G. Williams may have mistakenly dated this list based on the journal entries for the early part of JS’s journey, where the name Freeman Nickerson first appears. (See entries for 13 and 27–28 Oct. 1833.)  
  45. 34 In August 1833, after hearing of the initial depredations in Missouri, JS dispatched Hyde and Gould to Missouri “with advice to the Saints in their unfortunate situation.” An October revelation assured JS, who was concerned for the safety of the two messengers, that “inasmuch as they keep my commandments they shall be saved.” The pair returned to Kirtland safely but bore the news of vigilantes driving the Latter-day Saint population from Jackson County. (JS History, vol. A-1, 344; Revelation, 12 Oct. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 94:4, 1835 ed. [D&C 100:14]; Jennings, “Expulsion of the Mormons”; and Jennings, “Zion Is Fled.”)  
  46. 35 A council held in Kirtland on 11 September 1833, consisting of JS, Frederick G. Williams, Oliver Cowdery, and other members of the United Firm, resolved that a printing office be established there under the firm name of F. G. Williams & Co. to commence a new newspaper, Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. The council also resolved to continue publication of The Evening and the Morning Star—the church newspaper that was printed at Independence, Missouri, prior to the destruction of the press there in July 1833—until it could be moved back to Missouri.a They also planned at this time to publish a weekly political paper.b Cowdery began printing the first Kirtland issue of the Star a week and a half later.c The Messenger and Advocate superseded the Star the following October. The first regular issue of the political paper, later titled the Northern Times, did not appear until February 1835.d  (aMinute Book 1, 11 Sept. 1833.bSee JS, Kirtland, OH, to Edward Partridge, [Liberty], MO, 5 Dec. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 65–70.cJS, Journal, 18 Dec. 1833.dSee Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 47–53.)
  47. 36 Drawing upon biblical prophecies, many early Americans anticipated a literal gathering of the descendants of the Old Testament patriarch Jacob, also named Israel. Most conceived of this gathering as a return of the Jewish people to Palestine.a JS taught that many descendants of the other Israelite tribes—now scattered throughout the earth—would be gathered to Zion, the New Jerusalem, in America. A primary mission of the early Mormon publishing effort was to facilitate a “gathering” through which all who accepted the message of the restored gospel, were baptized and confirmed into the church, and immigrated to Mormon gathering centers would receive the blessings promised to Jacob’s descendants.b  (aAdler, “American Policy toward Zion,” 251–259; Whalen, “Millenarianism and Millennialism,” 117, 124.bSee, for example, Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 496–501, 566 [3 Nephi 20:11–21:29; Ether 13:4–8]; JS, Kirtland, OH, to N. C. Saxton, Rochester, NY, 4 Jan. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 14–18; and JS, “Church History,” Times and Seasons, 1 Mar. 1842, 3:710 [Articles of Faith 1:10].)
  48. 37 Like JS’s brother Don Carlos, both Wilbur Denton and Phineas Young had come to work with Oliver Cowdery in the newly established printing operation at Kirtland. (Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Ambrose Palmer, New Portage, OH, 30 Oct. 1833, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 4–5; Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to William W. Phelps, [Liberty, MO], 11 Dec. 1833, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 13.)  
  49. 38 That is, the proof sheet of the first issue of the resuscitated The Evening and the Morning Star in Kirtland (December 1833).  
  50. 39 See Isaiah 5:26; 11:12; compare Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 91, 98 [2 Nephi 15:26; 21:12].  
  51. 40 See Isaiah 3:17.  
  52. 41 An allusion to 1 Samuel 3:10.  
  53. 42 Oliver Cowdery noted that these blessings were “given by vision and the spirit of prophecy” when he copied more complete transcripts of the blessings into the first book of patriarchal blessings. However, the copied transcripts do not mention the weaknesses of Cowdery. Compare the assessment of Cowdery with similar assessments of JS’s counselors Sidney Rigdon and Frederick G. Williams in the blessings they received a month earlier. (Patriarchal Blessings, Patriarchal Blessings, 1:8–13; JS, Journal, 14–19 Nov. 1833; transcriptions of these blessings will be published under their dates in The Joseph Smith Papers, Documents series.)  
  54. 43 Copies of a letter, a revelation, and possibly an earlier letter, all written by JS in response to news from Missouri, were dispatched to Missouri by way of Pratt and Patten. The documents expressed empathy with the exiled church members and counseled them to remain in Missouri, retain title to their lands if at all financially possible, collect accounts of the atrocities committed against them, and seek “evry lawful means to obtain redress of your enemies.” (JS, Kirtland, OH, to Edward Partridge, [Liberty], MO, 5 Dec. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 65–70; JS, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Edward Partridge et al., Liberty, MO, 10 Dec. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 70–75; Revelation, 16 and 17 Dec. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 97, 1835 ed. [D&C 101].)  
  55. new scribe logo Frederick G. Williams handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  56. 44 Salisbury and his wife, Katharine Smith Salisbury, JS’s sister, lived in the area of Chardon, Ohio.  
  57. 45 JS apparently returned home to Kirtland within a week. (See “The Elders of the Church in Kirtland, to Their Brethren Abroad,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Feb. 1834, 135–136; Mar. 1834, 142–144; Apr. 1834, 152.)  
  58. 46 JS apparently penned the above 16 January entry during his trip away from Kirtland. On JS’s return, Oliver Cowdery apparently used notes taken at the previous Saturday’s prayer meeting to compose this entry.  
  59. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Oliver Cowdery begins.  
  60. 47 JS, Williams, Whitney, Johnson, and Sidney Rigdon (not present on this occasion) constituted the Kirtland branch of the United Firm. Cowdery, a member of the Missouri branch of the firm, was appointed four months earlier to represent the other members of that branch.a Hyde, appointed a clerk to the church presidency in June 1833, had recently returned from Missouri with the report of the brewing violence there.b The economic interests of the firm were reflected in their prayer concerning church debts, the printing operation, and the well-being of the Missouri Latter-day Saints.  (aBackman, Heavens Resound, 71; Minute Book 1, 11 Sept. 1833.bMinute Book 1, 6 June 1833; see also JS, Journal, 25 Nov. 1833.)
  61. 48 Doctor Philastus Hurlbut, a former Latter-day Saint, had worked vigorously to discredit JS and the church. During summer 1833, JS noted that the church was “suffering great persicution on account of” Hurlbut, who was “lieing in a wonderful manner and the peopl are running after him and giveing him mony to brake down mormanism which much endangers our lives.”a In summer and autumn 1833, Hurlbut traveled in Ohio, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and New York to collect statements against JS by his former neighbors and to build a case that the Book of Mormon had been copied from a work of fiction written by Solomon Spalding. On his return in mid-December, Hurlbut defamed JS in lectures and stirred up further persecution.b Antagonism against the church in Ohio grew to such proportions that Mormon Heber C. Kimball reported, “Our enemies were raging and threatening destruction upon us, and we had to guard night after night, and for weeks were not permitted to take off our clothes, and were obliged to lay with our fire locks in our arms.”c  (aJS, Kirtland, OH, to William W. Phelps et al., Independence, MO, 18 Aug. 1833, JS Collection, CHL.bWinchester, Origin of the Spaulding Story, 9–11.cKimball, “History,” 11; see also Grua, “Joseph Smith and the 1834 D. P. Hurlbut Case,” 35–38.)
  62. 49 A “command in writing by a Justice of Peace, or other Officer, for bringing a person or records before him.”a Hurlbut threatened JS’s life. JS’s cousin George A. Smith later recalled that “in delivering lectures he [Hurlbut] had said he would wash his hands in Joseph Smith’s blood.”b Kirtland justice of the peace John Dowen later claimed that when Hurlbut said he would “kill” JS, “he meant he would kill Mormonism.”c On 21 December 1833, JS filed a complaint with the Kirtland justice of the peace, whose decision in a preliminary hearing stated that JS “had reason to fear that Doctor P. Hurlbut would Beat wound or kill him.”d The justice of the peace then issued a warrant for Hurlbut’s arrest.e This legal action was intended to impede Hurlbut from carrying out the threat. Preliminary evaluation of JS’s complaint against Hurlbut began two days later, on 13 January.  (a“Precept,” in Law-Dictionary, 5:271.bGeorge A. Smith, in Journal of Discourses, 15 Nov. 1864, 11:8.cJohn C. Dowen, Statement, 2 Jan. 1885, 3, Manuscripts about Mormons at Chicago History Museum, Research Center, Chicago Historical Society.dGeauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, vol. P, p. 432, 31 Mar. 1834, microfilm 20,278, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.eDowen, Statement, 2 Jan. 1885, 3.)
  63. 50 Newel K. Whitney.  
  64. 51 Part of the firm’s debt stemmed from the purchase of the French farm—the property upon which the House of the Lord was being built. In the coming months, efforts were made to retire church debts. On 20 February 1834, a church council commissioned Orson Hyde and Orson Pratt to raise funds to retire this debt. (Minute Book 1, 20 Feb. 1834.)  
  65. 52 In a letter to Edward Partridge and others, JS outlined Oliver Cowdery’s difficulties returning from New York City with a press and type, “hauling them up in the midst of mobs.” (JS, Kirtland, OH, to Edward Partridge et al., Clay Co., MO, 30 Mar. 1834, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 30–36.)  
  66. 53 Publication of a compilation of revelations, the Book of Commandments, ceased when a mob destroyed the printing office in Missouri. The mandate to publish the revelations was explicit. A new compilation, the Doctrine and Covenants, was published in 1835. (See Revelation, 4 Dec. 1831, in Doctrine and Covenants 89:4, 1835 ed. [D&C 72:20–23]; and Minute Book 2, 12 Nov. 1831 and 30 Apr. 1832.)  
  67. 54 A “Literary Firm” had been appointed to conduct the press. Its active members at this time were JS, Cowdery, Sidney Rigdon, and Williams. (Cook, Law of Consecration, 43–44.)  
  68. 55 Less than a month earlier, a revelation promised that the Missouri Latter-day Saints would yet possess their lands in Jackson County: “Zion shall not be moved out of her place, notwithstanding her children are scattered, they that remain and are pure in heart shall return and come to their inheritances.” This echoed an earlier revelation that stated, “Zion shall be redeemed, although she is chastened for a little season.” (Revelation, 16 and 17 Dec. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 97:4, 1835 ed. [D&C 101:17–18]; Revelation, 12 Oct. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 94:4, 1835 ed. [D&C 100:13].)  
  69. 56 See Minute Book 1, 18 Mar. 1833.  
  70. 57 A “Bishops Council of High Priests” on 3 June 1833 excommunicated Hurlbut from the church for “unchristian conduct with the female sex while on a mission to the east.” Hurlbut, who was not present at this council, appealed the decision to a “Presidents council of high priests.” The president’s council, which met on 21 June 1833, upheld the bishop’s council but restored Hurlbut to fellowship after he confessed. Two days later, the council reopened Hurlbut’s case. After hearing from two witnesses who testified that Hurlbut had stated “that he had deceived Joseph Smith’s God,” the council again deprived him of his membership. (Minute Book 1, 3, 21, and 23 June 1833.)  
  71. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting ends; Frederick G. Williams begins.  
  72. 58 The preliminary evaluation of JS’s complaint against Hurlbut began two weeks earlier. Justice of the Peace William Holbrook, who heard testimony from 13 to 15 January 1834, found that JS had just cause to issue the complaint and ordered Hurlbut to keep the peace and to appear before the court of common pleas at the start of its next term, 31 March 1834. On 22 January 1834, JS reported to the Missouri Latter-day Saints that Hurlbut’s influence had been “pritty much distroyed” as a result of the 13–15 January preliminary hearing. Thus, the “spirit of hostility seams to be broken down in a good degree,” and “there is not quite so much danger of a Mob upon us as there has been.” (Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, vol. P, p. 431–432, 31 Mar. 1834, microfilm 20,278, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; JS et al., Kirtland, OH, to “Brethren scattered from Zion,” 22 Jan. 1834, in JS Letterbook 1, p. 81.)  
  73. 59 These individuals, who never affiliated with the church, owned over forty acres of property in the “Kirtland Flats”—the lowlands in northern and eastern Kirtland. In addition, Loud and Lyman jointly owned a sawmill and a gristmill. Bardsley sold a parcel of land to Latter-day Saint Edmund Bosley on 2 June 1834. Portions of this land were subsequently sold to JS on 23 October 1835 and 2 November 1836. (Geauga Co., OH, Duplicate Tax Records: 1816–1850, Tax Record for 1834, pp. 17, 21–22, 25, microfilm 506,578, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; Geauga Co., OH, Deed Records, vol. 20, pp. 302–303, 2 June 1834, microfilm 20,238; vol. 18, pp. 326–327, 2 June 1834, microfilm 20,237, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; Geauga Co., OH, Deed Records, vol. 21, p. 227, 23 Oct. 1835; vol. 22, pp. 567–568, 2 Nov. 1835, microfilm 20,239, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  
  74. 60 Kirtland was designated a “stake to Zion” in 1832; revelations in 1833 spoke of building up the Kirtland stake. (Revelation, 26 Apr. 1832, in Doctrine and Covenants 86:4, 1835 ed. [D&C 82:13]; Revelation, 2 Aug. 1833–B, in Doctrine and Covenants 83:1, 1835 ed. [D&C 94:1]; Revelation, 4 June 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 96:1, 1835 ed. [D&C 96:1]; see also Minute Book 1, 28 Sept. 1833.)  
  75. new scribe logo Frederick G. Williams handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  76. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Frederick G. Williams begins.  
  77. 61 Minutes, 17 Feb. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 5, 1835 ed. [D&C 102].  
  78. 62 Minute Book 1, 24 Feb. 1834.  
  79. 63 Pratt, Autobiography, 117.  
  80. 64 Revelation, 24 Feb. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 101, 1844 ed. [D&C 103].  
  81. new scribe logo Frederick G. Williams handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  82. 65 At Elk Creek, Pennsylvania.  
  83. 66 Westfield, New York.  
  84. new scribe logo Insertion in the handwriting of Parley P. Pratt.  
  85. 67 TEXT: Possibly “save [safe]” or “soon”.  
  86. 68 JS and his wife Emma had lost four of their six children.  
  87. 69 This table—listing settlements, villages, and townships and identifying them by county and state—apparently charts a proposed itinerary for the recruitment and fund-raising mission. Subsequent journal entries indicate that the men did not actually visit all these locations and that they stopped at others not listed here.  
  88. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; unidentified begins.  
  89. new scribe logo Unidentified handwriting ends; Frederick G. Williams begins.  
  90. 70 Probably a subscription to The Evening and the Morning Star. The sum of $1.50 would have paid for eighteen months of the paper. (JS, Journal, 1832–1834 [undated notes]; Notice, The Evening and the Morning Star, Mar. 1834, 144.)  
  91. new scribe logo Frederick G. Williams handwriting ends.  
  92. new scribe logo Parley P. Pratt handwriting begins.  
  93. 71 Reuben McBride later recalled JS’s staying with him. (McBride, Reminiscences, 1.)  
  94. 72 TEXT: Or “14” or “11”.  
  95. 73 At Perrysburg, New York. (1830 U.S. Census, Perrysburg, Cattaraugus Co., NY, 224.)  
  96. 74 When the Latter-day Saints were first settling in Missouri, a JS revelation stated that the gathering should “be done in order” by purchasing lands. A revelation dated 16 and 17 December 1833—less than three months before JS departed on his recruitment and fund-raising mission—directed the Saints to continue observing this order by purchasing lands in and around Jackson County. (Revelation, 1 Aug. 1831, in Book of Commandments 59:64–69 [D&C 58:52–56]; Revelation, 16 and 17 Dec. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 97, 1835 ed. [D&C 101].)  
  97. 75 JS may have held a meeting in Lodi, New York, approximately four miles to the east of Perrysburg. A subscription to The Evening and the Morning Star for Nathan Chase at the West Lodi post office is recorded in the back of the journal. (See JS, Journal, 1832–1834 [undated notes].)  
  98. 76 Possibly David Mathews. (Warren Cowdery, Freedom, NY, to Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, 14 Jan. 1834, The Evening and the Morning Star, Jan. 1834, 127; Minute Book 1, 6 June 1835.)  
  99. 77 Itinerant circuit courts commonly traveled through rural nineteenth-century America, stopping in county seats and important municipalities to bring the state’s legal apparatus to its citizens. (Mahoney, Provincial Lives, 178–190.)  
  100. 78 TEXT: JS inserted “walkers—” over dashed line.  
  101. 79 1830 U.S. Census, Farmersville Township, Cattaraugus Co., NY, 149, lists Leonard Walker, Thomas Walker, and Billings Walker living near Marcellus McCown at Farmersville, New York.  
  102. 80 Oliver Cowdery’s older brother Warren had expressed sympathy with the persecuted Mormons in Missouri; he joined the church within a few months of this visit. (Warren Cowdery, Freedom, NY, to Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, 14 Jan. 1834, The Evening and the Morning Star, Jan. 1834, 127; Warren Cowdery, Freedom, NY, to Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, 1 Sept. 1834, The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 189; see also Revelation, 25 Nov. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 99, 1835 ed. [D&C 106].)  
  103. 81 Parley P. Pratt later recorded that Hyde and “some thirty or forty others, were all baptized and organized into a branch of the Church.” (Pratt, Autobiography, 117.)  
  104. 82 At Livonia, New York. (Livingston Co., NY, Deed Records, 1820–1901, vol. 1, p. 257, 1 Feb. 1832, microfilm 510,034, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  
  105. new scribe logo Parley P. Pratt handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  106. 83 At Avon, New York. Parley P. Pratt later recalled that JS reminisced with Beaman, who “had been intimate with Joseph long before the first organization of the Church.” (Noble, Reminiscences, 5; Pratt, Autobiography, 118.)  
  107. 84 JS’s history states this somewhat differently: “while at father Beaman’s, Elders Rigdon and Wight arrived, much to the joy of their souls, and the Saints in Livona.” (JS History, vol. A-1, 447.)  
  108. 85 Parley P. Pratt later wrote that in Geneseo, he and JS “met with the other Elders who had started from Kirtland on the same mission, and with others who were local, and held a general Conference,” at which both JS and Sidney Rigdon “addressed the crowds in great plainness of speech with mighty power.” (Pratt, Autobiography, 117–118; see also Noble, Reminiscences, 5–7.)  
  109. 86 On this day, JS conducted a conference of elders at Alvah Beaman’s home in Avon, New York. The meeting’s purposes were to recruit men to “assist in the redemption of Zion according to the commandment” and to raise money to purchase Missouri land and meet debts at Kirtland, Ohio. The conference also reassigned Parley P. Pratt to another companion, voting that JS “go to Kirtland soon” with Rigdon and Wight. JS needed to return to Kirtland to testify against Doctor Philastus Hurlbut. (Minute Book 1, 17 Mar. 1834; see Revelation, 24 Feb. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 101:5, 1844 ed. [D&C 103:22–23].)  
  110. 87 At the conference held the previous day at Avon, New York, Edmund Bosley and others agreed to try to raise two thousand dollars by 1 April 1834 to relieve Kirtland debts. (Minute Book 1, 17 Mar. 1834.)  
  111. 88 At Bennington, Genesee County, New York. (Genesee Co., NY, Deed Records, 1792–1901, vol. 29, p. 337, 7 Apr. 1832, microfilm 987,179, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  
  112. 89 At Wethersfield, Genesee (now Wyoming) County, New York. (History of the Lafayette Hinckley and Alsina Elisabeth Brimhall Holbrook Families, 14.)  
  113. 90 Jesus enjoined his disciples to travel without money, to rely on the hospitality of others, and to condemn those who would not receive them as his representatives. This instruction had been reiterated in revelations for latter-day missionaries, who were not to return to those who rejected them. This may explain why Wilson’s name and place of residence were noted. (Matthew 10:9–15; Revelation, July 1830–A, in Book of Commandments 25:28 [D&C 24:18]; Revelation, 22–23 Sept. 1832, in Doctrine and Covenants 4:12, 15–16, 1835 ed. [D&C 84:77–78, 86–94]; compare JS, Journal, 26 Mar. 1834.)  
  114. 91 Probably Joseph Starks of Sardinia, about nine miles east of Springville, New York. (1830 U.S. Census, Sardinia, Erie Co., NY, 205.)  
  115. 92 Hurlbut had been ordered to appear before the county’s court of common pleas at the start of its term, 31 March 1834. The trial commenced on 2 April 1834. (Grua, “Joseph Smith and the 1834 D. P. Hurlbut Case,” 44–47.)  
  116. 93 Probably Ezekiel Rider. (Geauga Co., OH, Duplicate Tax Records: 1816–1850, Tax Record for 1833, p. 95, microfilm 506,577; Tax Record for 1834, p. 110, microfilm 506,578, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  
  117. 94 JS or his attorney would have filled in witness names on subpoena forms for the court clerk. A week later, when the case was heard, seventeen witnesses attended to testify for JS. (An Act Directing the Mode of Trial in Criminal Cases [7 Mar. 1831], Acts of a General Nature, sec. 22; Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, Execution Docket 1831–1835, p. 110, microfilm 1,289,257, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  
  118. 95 See Psalm 41:9.  
  119. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Oliver Cowdery begins.  
  120. 96 On 5 April 1834, Johnson was granted a license to keep a tavern in Kirtland. JS testified before the court on Johnson’s qualifications. (Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, vol. M, p. 184, 5 Apr. 1834, microfilm 20,277, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  
  121. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting ends; Frederick G. Williams begins.  
  122. 97 Though council meetings in 1834 generally took place in JS’s home, “councel room” probably refers to the upper room in the Newel K. Whitney store where instruction, administrative meetings, and work on the revision of the Bible usually took place. (“Whitney Store,” in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4:1566–1567.)  
  123. 98 The United Firm. A conference three weeks earlier in Avon, New York, appointed Orson Hyde to remain in the area, preach, and collect money for relieving Kirtland debts, money he was to raise by 1 April. JS had just received Hyde’s letter of 31 March reporting his failure to raise the funds. In a letter of reply, JS wrote, “Myself bro Newel Frederick and Oliver retired to the Translating room where prayer was wont to be made and unbosomed our feelings before God and cannot but exercise faith yet that you in the meraculus providence of God will succeed in obtaining help.” Otherwise, JS continued, he and the other Kirtland Latter-day Saints would not be able to go with the upcoming expedition to Missouri. (Minute Book 1, 17 Mar. 1834; JS et al., Kirtland, OH, to Orson Hyde, [Avon, NY], 7 Apr. 1834, in JS Letterbook 1, p. 82.)  
  124. 99 The court found that JS “had ground to fear” an attack from Hurlbut, who was then ordered to post a $200 bond to keep the peace and pay the court costs of $112.59. (Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, vol. M, 193, 9 Apr. 1834, microfilm 20,277; vol. P, pp. 431–432, 31 Mar. 1834, microfilm 20,278, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; see also “Mormon Trial,” Chardon Spectator and Geauga Gazette, 12 Apr. 1834, 3; and [Oliver Cowdery], Editorial, The Evening and the Morning Star, Apr. 1834, 150.)  
  125. 100 Gilbert and Whitney were the appointed agents for the United Firm, and the bond mentioned here may be related to the dissolution of the United Firm, which was agreed upon the following day. (JS, Journal, 10 Apr. 1834; see also Minute Book 2, 27 and 30 Apr. 1832.)  
  126. 101 TEXT: A wavy line drawn around the preceding sentence marks it as a personal memorandum.  
  127. 102 The Missouri branch of the firm had been forcibly removed from its Jackson County property, and the Kirtland branch was in debt to eastern creditors. Two weeks later, a revelation directed that the firm was to be dissolved in the sense of dividing it into separate Kirtland and Missouri entities. Each member of the Kirtland firm received “stewardship” for an enterprise or a parcel of real estate. (Minute Book 1, 17 Mar. 1834; Revelation, 23 Apr. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 98, 1835 ed. [D&C 104].)  
  128. 103 Probably Andrews Tyler, who lived in Springfield, Erie County, Pennsylvania. Orson Pratt and Lyman Johnson excommunicated a “Bro. Tiler” while traveling in and around Springfield four months earlier. (1830 U.S. Census, Springfield, Erie Co., PA, 337; Pratt, Diary, 5 Dec. 1833.)  
  129. 104 Lake Erie, about six miles from Kirtland.  
  130. 105 JS made this purchase for $4.75 with Frederick G. Williams, scribe for this portion of the journal. (See F. G. Williams and Company, Account Book, 6.)  
  131. new scribe logo Frederick G. Williams handwriting ends; Oliver Cowdery begins.  
  132. 106 Missouri state officials had communicated some willingness to see the expelled Mormons return to Jackson County but with the understanding that Mormons would then be responsible to form legal militia units to prevent a second expulsion. (See Crawley and Anderson, “Political and Social Realities of Zion’s Camp.”)  
  133. 107 Following the destruction of the Missouri printing office in July 1833—which interrupted publication of the Book of Commandments—JS, Rigdon, Cowdery, and Frederick G. Williams were assigned to produce in Kirtland an updated compilation of revelations. While JS and Williams traveled to Missouri with the expeditionary force, Rigdon and Cowdery continued to work on the compilation project in addition to sustaining regular publication of The Evening and the Morning Star throughout the three-month period. (Minute Book 1, 24 Sept. 1834 and 17 Aug. 1835; see also Woodford, “Development of the Doctrine and Covenants,” 1:37–47.)  
  134. 108 Rigdon preached in Norton, Ohio. A note in the back of the journal was apparently recorded in preparation for the conference at which Rigdon spoke. (Minute Book 1, 21 Apr. 1834; JS, Journal, 1832–1834 [undated note].)  
  135. 109 After recounting the church’s foundational historical events to this conference of Latter-day Saints at Norton, Ohio, JS stated, “Without a Zion and a place of deliverance, we must fall, because the time is near when the sun will be darkened, the moon turn to blood, the stars fall from heaven and the earth reel to and fro.” JS and Rigdon also spoke on the importance of the construction of the House of the Lord in Kirtland. (Minute Book 1, 21 Apr. 1834.)  
  136. 110 This 23 April meeting of United Firm members was probably the setting in which a revelation of this date was dictated, though it may be that the meeting was held in response to the revelation. Ratifying the decision made two weeks earlier to “dissolve” the firm,a the revelation called for it to be divided into two separate firms, one for Kirtland and one for Missouri; gave members of the Kirtland firm individual stewardships for the assets of the firm in that vicinity (enterprises or parcels of real estate); gave them collective responsibility for financing the publication of scriptures; and counseled them to “pay all your debts,” which would in some cases require renegotiating the terms or borrowing elsewhere.b Frederick G. Williams later described another revelation dictated at about this same time, which was not written, requiring certain members of the United Firm “to ballan[ce] all accounts & give up all notes & demands that they had against each other & all be equal which was done.” Among these, JS owed the largest amount, $1,151.31.c After April 1834, neither of the two successor firms outlined in the major 23 April revelation materialized. Instead, church leaders, including several former members of the United Firm, gave general direction to the management of the enterprises and lands involved in Kirtland.d  (aJS, Journal, 10 Apr. 1834.bRevelation, 23 Apr. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 98:3–11, 13, 1835 ed. [D&C 104:11–13, 19–51, 58–64, 78–85]; see also Revelation Book 2, p. 111.cFrederick G. Williams, Statement, no date, Frederick G. Williams, Papers, CHL; Balances Due, 23 Apr. 1834, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU.dMinute Book 1, 24 Sept. 1834; Parkin, “Joseph Smith and the United Firm.”)
  137. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting ends; Frederick G. Williams begins.  
  138. 111 This and the previous amount of fifty dollars may have been contributed by a single donor. Wilford Woodruff later recalled that at the end of April 1834, JS received “a letter containing a hundred and fifty dollars, sent to him by sister Voce, of Boston.” The donor could have been either Mary (Polly) Vose (1780–1866) or her niece Ruth Vose (1808–1884), both of whom lived in Boston at this time. (Wilford Woodruff, in Journal of Discourses, 10 Jan. 1858, 7:101; Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, 381–382, 386.)  
  139. new scribe logo Frederick G. Williams handwriting ends; unidentified begins.  
  140. new scribe logo Unidentified handwriting ends.  
  141. 112 Revelation, 24 Feb. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 101:6, 1844 ed. [D&C 103:29].  
  142. 113 Revelation, 22 June 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 102:3, 8, 1844 ed. [D&C 105:9, 13, 26].  
  143. 114 JS, Richmond, IN, to Emma Smith, Kirtland Mills, OH, 19 May 1834, CCLA.  
  144. 115 JS History, vol. A-1, 474–527; compare George A. Smith, Autobiography, 14–43; Kimball, “History,” 11–24; and Woodruff, Journal, 1 May–1 July 1834.  
  145. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting begins.  
  146. 116 An epidemic of Asiatic cholera spread through Europe and reached American cities in 1832. Cleveland was revisited with the disease in 1834, and JS and other members of the expeditionary force suffered an outbreak near the end of the Missouri expedition. JS and other Latter-day Saints viewed the epidemic within a framework of millennial judgment. (Chambers, Conquest of Cholera, chaps. 1–6; Avery, History of Cleveland, 1:145; Kimball, “History,” 21–24; JS, Kirtland, OH, to Lyman Wight et al., Missouri, 16 Aug. 1834, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 84–87; “The Cholera,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Aug. 1832, [1]; Sept. 1832, [1]; see also JS, Hyrum [Hiram, OH], to William W. Phelps, Zion [Independence], MO, 31 July 1832, JS Collection, CHL.)  
  147. 117 Before the strikethroughs and revisions, this passage read, “administering to the sick, for the purpose of obtaining means for the work of the Lord”, perhaps showing that Williams intended to raise money for the church by charging for medical services. Williams was a practicing botanical physician. (Williams, “Frederick Granger Williams,” 244–245, 251–252; George A. Smith, Autobiography, 42; JS History, vol. A-1, addenda, 16n18.)  
  148. 118 Carter, a member of the committee to raise money for building the House of the Lord in Kirtland, was appointed in April 1834 “to visit the several churches, to receive contributions.” (Notice, The Evening and the Morning Star, Apr. 1834, 151; see also Minute Book 1, 4 May and 6 June 1833.)  
  149. 119 Apparently in connection with the church’s desire to expand Mormon holdings in Kirtland, Bosley purchased property from Andrew Bardsley on 2 June 1834. Bosley made a formal covenant to give the land to the church. However, because Bosley still owed four hundred dollars for the land, he proposed that he maintain the use and management of the land for one year, presumably allowing him to earn the money to pay his debt. Bosley later refused to honor his agreement, and a church council excommunicated him in July 1835. (Geauga Co., OH, Deed Records, vol. 20, pp. 302–303, 2 June 1834, microfilm 20,238; vol. 18, pp. 326–327, 2 June 1834, microfilm 20,237, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; Minute Book 1, 14 July 1835.)  
  150. 120 Oliver Cowdery, Norton, OH, to William W. Phelps, 7 Sept. 1834, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Oct. 1834, 1:14; Minute Book 1, 8 Sept. 1834.  
  151. 121 Minute Book 1, 24 Sept. 1834; JS History, vol. B-1, 557.  
  152. 122 Revelation, 16 and 17 Dec. 1833, in Doctrine and Covenants 97:10, 1835 ed. [D&C 101:72–73]; Minute Book 1, 28 Nov. 1834; Alvah Tippets, Lewis, NY, to JS, Kirtland, OH, 20 Oct. 1834, in Minute Book 1, pp. 78–80.  
  153. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  154. new scribe logo JS handwriting ends; Oliver Cowdery begins.  
  155. 123 This personal covenant made and signed by JS and Oliver Cowdery preceded by nearly four years the revelation mandating that church members contribute “one tenth of all their interest annually” as tithing. (See Revelation, 8 July 1838–C, in JS, Journal, 8 July 1838 [D&C 119:4].)  
  156. 124 See Genesis 28:10–22.  
  157. 125 See Genesis 49:26.  
  158. 126 See Isaiah 54:17.  
  159. 127 In January, donations of Latter-day Saint John Tanner materially improved their situation. Tanner’s son Nathan recalled that his father donated over three thousand dollars and saved the mortgage on the temple block from being foreclosed. (Minute Book 1, 18 Jan. 1835; Tanner, Autobiography, 25; compare “Sketch of an Elder’s Life,” 12–13.)  
  160. 128 Cowdery viewed this ordination as fulfillment of an angelic promise. According to JS’s history, in May 1829 John the Baptist announced that Cowdery would be second elder, next in authority to JS as first elder, in the church that was yet to be organized.a Beginning in April 1830, JS and Cowdery held the positions and titles the angel had specified. But Cowdery was away filling an assignment in Missouri when on 8 March 1832 a presidency was established in Kirtland to lead the church.b In Cowdery’s absence, Sidney Rigdon and Jesse Gause were appointed counselors to JS.c JS had previously been designated “president of the high priesthood of the church” in November 1831 and ordained to that position on 25 January 1832.d Frederick G. Williams replaced Gause as a counselor by January 1833.e In the history he was keeping for JS at the time, Cowdery recorded a more complete transcription of this 5 December 1834 blessing and reported that although Rigdon and Williams had seniority in office as counselors, Cowdery, in fulfillment of the angel’s promise, was now to be first among the three to “assist in presiding over the whole church, and to officiate in the absence of the President.” Following Cowdery’s ordination, Rigdon and Williams “confirmed the ordinance and blessings by the laying on of hands and prayer, after which each were blessed with the same blessings and prayer.” In a meeting the following day, Hyrum Smith and Joseph Smith Sr. were called as additional “assistant presidents,” or counselors.f  (aJS History, vol. A-1, 17–18.bEntry for 5 Dec. 1834, in JS History, 1834–1836, 17.cRevelation Book 2, pp. 10–11.dRevelation, 11 Nov. 1831–B, in Doctrine and Covenants 3:31, 1835 ed. [D&C 107:59–67].eMinute Book 1, 22 Jan. 1833.fEntries for 5 and 6 Dec. 1834, in JS History, 1834–1836, 17–20.)
  161. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting ends.  
  162. new scribe logo JS handwriting begins.  
  163. 129 JS History, 1834–1836, 17–20.  
  164. new scribe logo Freeman Nickerson handwriting begins.  
  165. 130 TEXT: Possibly “Carpenton” or “Carpentor”.  
  166. new scribe logo Freeman Nickerson handwriting ends; unidentified begins.  
  167. 131 TEXT: Insertion in graphite in unidentified handwriting. The journal records JS’s visit to Perrysburg, New York, 5 and 6 March 1834.  
  168. new scribe logo Unidentified handwriting ends; different unidentified handwriting begins.  
  169. new scribe logo Unidentified handwriting ends; different unidentified handwriting begins—possibly Hazard Andrus.  
  170. 132 Fairview post office was located in Farmersville Township, New York. The journal records JS’s visit to Farmersville on 8 March 1834.  
  171. 133 TEXT: Possibly “Mathews”.  
  172. new scribe logo Unidentified—possibly Hazard Andrus—handwriting ends; Freeman Nickerson begins.  
  173. 134 The present journal records that JS stayed with Reuben McBride, the brother of Samuel and James, on the night of 4 March 1834.  
  174. 135 Freeman Nickerson. The present journal records that JS visited Nickerson’s home on 5 and 6 March 1834.  
  175. 136 The 1830 U.S. Census lists Freeman Nickerson’s brothers Eleazer, Samuel, and Richard Nickerson in the area of Yarmouth, Barnstable County, Massachusetts—four miles west-northwest of South Dennis. Their subscription was apparently ordered by their brother Freeman Nickerson. (1830 U.S. Census, Yarmouth, Barnstable Co., MA, 375; Dennis, Barnstable Co., MA, 392.)  
  176. new scribe logo Freeman Nickerson handwriting ends; Oliver Cowdery begins, inscribed in light graphite.  
  177. 137 Apparently, Rigdon preached on the first day of the conference and JS, Rigdon, Cowdery, and others on the second. (See JS, Journal, 20 Apr. 1834; and Minute Book 1, 21 Apr. 1834.)  
  178. new scribe logo Oliver Cowdery handwriting ends; JS begins.  
  179. 138 TEXT: This and the subsequent instance of “Cowdrey” are possibly written “Cowdry”.