Letter to Edward Partridge and Others, 30 March 1834

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

To , , and others of the .
, March 30, 1834.
Dear Brethren:
We have received several communications from you of late; but the most of us being absent, laid them over till council could be had; and I now seat myself to dictate to answer them all in one. Since brothers, & , arrived I have written a few lines with my own hand in letters which have already gone: one from this place, and one from N.Y. but was not able to write the more weighty matters, and did not think to say anything more than to comfort your hearts if possible, and keep you from fainting, while God, in his wisdom, and in the order of his Providence, is preparing all things before his face for the . We rejoic greatly on learning that you and the brethren, so many of them, are yet spared in the midst of those who wear the form of human beings, but are less merciful than the prowling beast of the wilderness. We would inform you that with very few exceptions the in this place are all well; and every man, woman & child, that belongs to the Church, as far as I have any knowledge of the matter, are crying day & night to God for the deliverance and prosperity of ; and many are preparing with all zeal to do all that lies in their power to accomplish the great work, and it will be seen in due time, that the saints in this region are not slack towards you considering their circumstances, & their great poverty, & afflictions & persecutions with which they are called to suffer in this part as well as you in that region; for the more we [p. 30] try to live Godly in Christ Jesus, the more we are made to feel the weight of persecution, inflicted by those who are under the influence of the enemy of the souls of men. But let this suffice: I shall proceed first to answer some of the most important items contained in your last communications, the more part which gave us much satisfaction. We admire the confidence & love which our brethren have manifested in them, in giving us sharp, piercing, & cutting reproofs, which are calculated to wake us up & make us search about ourselves, & put a double watch over ourselves in all things that we do. And we acknowledge that it is our duty to receive all reproofs & chastisements given of the spirit of the most Holy One. And if being chastised and reproved of what we are guilty, seems not to be joyous for the present but grievous, O, how wounding, & how poignant must it be to receive chastisements & reproofs, for things that we are not guilty of from a source we least expect them, arising from a distrustful, a fearful, & jealous spirit. However, we feel to make all allowances, & reflect seariously & consider upon all sides before we make an effort to throw off the yoke, lest we should be found in anywise blamable before God. There are some items contained in ’s letters by the way of reproof, that we feel to give, we think some reasonable excuses, that you may <​know​> how far you have reasons to give reproof, that you may not have wrong feelings concerning those to whom you are espoused in Christ Jesus who always will be found true to all confidence that shall be imposed in them.
Firstly, you have given us to understand that there are glaring errors in the Revelation, or rather, have shown us the most glaring ones, which are not calculated to suit the refinement of the age in which we live, of the great men, &c. We would say, by way of excuse, that we did not think so much of the orthography, or the manner, as [p. 31] as we did of the subject matter; as the word of God means what it says; & it is the word of God, as much as Christ was God, although he was born in a stable, & was rejected by the manner of his birth, notwithstanding he was God. What a mistake! the manner of his birth, & the source from which he sprang caused him to be rejected & cast out, & to be taken & put to death.
Whereas <​had​> he pleased the great men, the high priests, the lawyers, & the learned, he might have escaped. But supposing we should happen to make as great a mistake as the Lord did, & come under the censure of big men & fall in the same way, what would be the consequence? The fact was, there was no room in the Inn; & when man cannot do as they would, they must do as they can; for God set the example before them. For there was no room in the Inn! but there was room found “in the stable; & here was utterly a fault in the eyes of the laughing philosophers;” but it is not given to us to understand that he altered his course to please any man. And who was it that triumphed? was it the “laughing philosophers,” or him who never deviated from the will of him who sent him? Now the fact is, if we have made any mistakes in punctuation, or spelling, it has been done in consequence of , having come from in great afflictions, through much fatigue and anxiety, and being sent contrary to his expectations to , and obtain[in]g press and Types, and hauling them up in the midst of mobs, when he and I, and all the in had to lie every night for a long time upon our arms to keep off mobs, of forties, of eighties, & of hundreds to save our lives and the press, and that we might not be scattered & driven to the four winds! And all this in the midst of every kind of confusion & calamity & in the sorrowful tale of , for the sake of Zion, that the word of God might be printed & sent forth by confidential brethren to the different churches; for the churches are just like you— they will not receive anything but by [p. 32] revelation! for when you hint they will ask a question, and if by any means in the heat of zeal you would hit them a kick it never fails to turn over the dish. Therefore, when we give them a hint, and they ask a question, we sometimes answer them plainly; but all this is a wonder and a mystery; but it wont do to kick, therefore to unfold the mystery we must of necessity send out the word of the mystery we must of God unto the different , or they could not be made to understand, that they, with their moneys, and their young men & their middle aged, must, in order to do the will of God, redeem the land which had been purchased, & the children of — and if by chance in doing all this <​we​> should have to suffer peril by false brethren. For men are as liable in this generation to turn aside from the holy , as were the children of Israel when Aaron bought the golden calf at the expense of all the jewelry, & riches of the children of Israel, while Moses tarried yet forty days in the mount, that he might receive the law of the everlasting gospel upon tables of stone, written by the finger of of God, while they, the children of Israel, were delivered over, & bowed down and worshiped the dumb idol, and said, These be our Gods that brought us up out of the land of Egypt. And Moses being angry destroyed the tables of Stone, and the golden calf and made the children of Isarel drink the substance of their God, which they said brought them up out of the land of Egypt. Therefore, I say, if we should suffer peril among false brethren, should it be accounted a strange thing? But here comes up another question, a great mystery! How did the revelation come to be garbled by the printers of the day, published and sent to and elsewhere? But if all these things, upon a little reflection had been rightly considered and understood, there would have been no mystery, nor any question asked. Not a sigh— not a lingering thought— not a grief, or a single reflection cast upon the innocent, a virgin, the spouse of Zion! Suffice it to say, that the revelation went into the hands of the world by stealth, through the means of false brethren, and lest it should reach the ears of the President and , with a false coloring, being misrepresented, [p. 33] wisdom dictated that we should send it in its own proper light. And if truth, and the word of God will not bear off the Palms and bring us the victory, shall we, who profess to be men of God condescend to folly? Shall we turn aside from the word of God and seek to save our lives, and that we may please men? If men will seek occasion against the truth, will they not seek occasion even if we should shun the truth? The fact is, beloved brethren, we seek not gold or silver or this world’s goods, nor honors nor the applause of men; but we seek to please him, and to do the will of him who hath power not only to destroy the body; but to cast the soul into hell! Ah! men should not attempt to steady the ark of God! But enough on this subject.
Now concerning employing Mr. [Robert W.] Wells of Jefferson C’ty. as Counsellor &c. We think it would be advisable. You may consider that you have our consent: We speak to wise men! Judge ye what we say! Employ, then, Mr. Wells, and although we have neither gold nor silver, we have run into debt for the press, and also to obtain money to pay the debt for , and have received but a very few dollars for the Star and printing as yet, no means of speculation to gain or make money, yet we think that the money can be had, and that there will be no difficulty on this subject: and this, while you are writing to us to reprove us, and telling us, that your dependence for money is on your eastern brethren, and at the same time saying Dont buy your gold too dear!” this is the way that we buy our gold! Now, brethren, let me tell you, that it is my disposition to give and forgive, and to bear & to forbear, with all long suffering and patience, with the foibles, follies, weaknesses, & wickedness of my brethren and all the world of mankind; and my confidence and love toward you is not slackened, nor weakened. And now, if you should be called upon to bear with us a little in any of our weaknesses and follies, and should, with us, receive a rebuke to yourselves, dont be offended, dont in anywise let it hit you, so as to turn over the dish! And when you & I meet face to face, I [p. 34] anticipate, without the least doubt, that all matters between us will be fairly understood, and perfect love prevail; and sacred covenant by which we are bound together, have the uppermost seat in our hearts.
We expect that a number of our able brethren will come on soon and go to ; and should you have no other way of obtaining moneys, you can sell them your lands, let them go on to them, protect them on the same, till your suits are determined, and then, (if you succeed) you will have means to purchase more, and if not they will receive you into their bosoms. We see no other way now; but the Lord may open other ways in time. Brs. and are both in the east; but we expect they will leave here for the west by the first of may, and go as soon as they can, so should you be organized by the time they arrive, perhaps it would be well. You must act wisdom for yourselves in many things, as you are better prepared to judge in many things than we are. Many things are familiar with some of us, which we cannot communicate by letter; but will be brought about in their times. You ought to be prepared to go back at a moment’s warning, and we are inclined to think that it was a wise step in employing the Att’y Gen. for he will investigate and learn the truth, and then will investigate also.
Once more I design coming unto [you?]; but when, it has not been revealed: whether it will be with & I cannot now say; but once more I design to come mob or no mob, enemy or no enemy! There needs be no difficulty in relation to the revelations; for they show plainly from the face of them, that no blood is to be shed except in self-defense; and that the law of God as well as man gives us a privilege. If you make yourselves acquainted with the revelations, you will see that this is the case, though we should not publish any more than we are obliged to of necessity for the ’s sake. We have nothing to fear if we are faithful: God will strike through kings in the day of his wrath but what he will deliver his people; and what do you suppose he could do with a few mobbers [p. 35] in , where, ere long, he will set his feet, when earth & heaven shall tremble!
Be united, brethren, in all your moves, and stand by each other even unto death that you may prevail.
I remain your brother in the .
Joseph Smith Jun.
P.S. To — You say “my press, my types, &c.” Where, our brethren ask, did you get them, & how came they to be “yours?” No hardness, but a caution; for you know, that it is, We, not I, and all things are the Lord’s, and he opened the hearts of his to furnish these things, or we should not have been privileged with using them.
Dear :
You will see that I have written <​bro. Joseph’s​> closely— and have saved a short space. I see that you did not understand the enquiry relative to antimony &c. and perhaps the enquiry was not as explicit as it should have been— I merely wanted to know the process of melting antimonynot the price of it, nor the proper compound for type metal. We purchased some antimony last fall, thinking to cast some Oads [quads]; but we were difficultied in melting it, or rather melting and mixing it with lead, so we concluded to write to & learn the method, not the art of making types, though if the Lord should give his saints a type foundry in it would be no more mysterious than that he shold bring forth the fulness of his Gospel in these last days, and give you & myself a privilege of embracing <​it​> first, that we might have the great & exalted saying conferred upon us, that we were of the first fruits unto God in this his last [p. 36] Kingdom. We talk some of stereotyping the old copy with the book of Mormon; but when will depend upon circumstances, attended with the blessings of the Lord. I send father Chapen a paper according to your direction; but do not know brother Newberry’s first name— please write it in your next. Those other names were so closely compressed that it was with some difficulty, that I ascertained who and where, and I am not now certain— please write in your next; for we want them to go that the news may spread. In your letter to by and you wish me to represent the importance of your requests; but I know not as I could say anything which would awaken them to activity in the cause of anymore than they are now— Night & day with every means they cease not to labor, and I can safely say, that they think & long for her deliverance as <​much as​> those who have lived upon her consecrated soil. Your request relative to clothing &c. shall be properly considered. I will just remind you, that your reproofs, though designed for the best, are calculated to make a different impression when written, than when given orally— the fact is, it is a long distance to reprove for small things in these days of great events. I drop you this because you & I have labored together a long time, & I have no doubt but it will be received— you know how it was once in reproving. called on Tom Channing some time since for your old moulds, and Tom, had the politeness to inform him where he could get one made, & not understanding that it was your mould. paid his money for the new one and Tom, keep yours— so much for his honor when he thinks you are beyond his reach, or, he yours. As respects giving the Mobbers their true characters in the Star— We do not want to add affliction to your calamity: but we must say something about them: for this is one reason why the Lord gave us this press; and if <​we​> say nothing of their character, nor expose their wicked deeds the world will enquire, “why have they” (the saints) fled.” Every article is generally inspected before it goes out. There are many errors in spelling, which cannot be avoided yet, well, the boys are young, and it is not as it was with us [p. 37] four or five proof readers, and with the incessant labor which is necessary for me to perform it could not be expected that every thing would be perfect. We mean to observe the greatest caution in publishing your letters, so as not to expose you to unnecessary danger and & trouble. We did not think it advisable to publish the ’s letter, if we had we should have had it out long ago. We have a letter from him to us, all which we keep till a proper time— Wilber— will probably be with you ere this arrives as he left on the 17th. March. We were in great need of his help, but as you wrote for him by the first of may, we dare not keep him any longer, lest we might disappoint & do a great injury. The first safe opportunity <​we​> will send you the mould which got made. When we commence the weekly paper we shall have to get another made, as we designed to work with rollers. I could give respects to all, but it is not needful to write the names, for I have not room. When you write I wish you would say a few words about my .
I am your brother (and shall ever be) in the .
[p. 38]

Footnotes

  1. 1

    The letters referenced here have not been located. It is possible that the 27 February 1834 letter from William W. Phelps had arrived and was one of the “several communications” that JS had recently received, though he does not respond to that letter here. (See Letter from William W. Phelps, 27 Feb. 1834.)  

  2. 2

    Cowdery was apparently unwilling to answer these letters in JS’s absence. JS and Cowdery likely conferred on the letters’ contents before JS made this reply.  

  3. 3

    Parley P. Pratt and Lyman Wight arrived in Kirtland in February 1834 to report on the condition of church members in Missouri to the Kirtland high council. (Minutes, 24 Feb. 1834.)  

  4. 4

    These letters have not been located.  

  5. 5

    For a discussion on the “afflictions & persecutions” of the Mormons in Kirtland around the time this letter was written, see Historical Introduction to Prayer, 11 Jan. 1834.  

  6. 6

    In a letter to church members “scattered abroad” in Missouri written on 22 January 1834, the presidency of the high priesthood included a broadside of the 16–17 December 1833 revelation printed by Oliver Cowdery in the Kirtland printing office. The errors in the revelation referred to here included minor misspellings and grammatical mistakes. (Letter to the Church in Clay Co., MO, 22 Jan. 1834; see also Verily, I Say unto You, concerning Your Brethren Who Have Been Afflicted [Kirtland, OH: ca. Jan. 1834], copy at CHL [D&C 101].)  

    Verily, I say unto you, concerning your brethren who have been afflicted. [Kirtland, OH: ca. Jan. 1834]. Copy at CHL.

  7. 7

    JS here used “orthography” to mean spelling and grammar.  

  8. 8

    See Luke 2:7.  

  9. 9

    According to the Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, published in the latter half of the nineteenth century, Democritus, a Greek philosopher who lived from 460–357 BC, was known as the “laughing philosopher” because he “viewed with supreme contempt the feeble powers of man.” A more contemporary periodical article likewise called Democritus the “laughing philosopher.” The phrase “laughing philosophers” was also used more generally to connote jest, sarcasm, or humor. (Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 733; “Humble Station No Obstacle to the Acquisition of Knowledge,” Friend, 28 Aug. 1830, 361; see also, for example, The Galaxy of Wit: or Laughing Philosopher Being a Collection of Choice Anecdotes . . . , 2 vols. [Boston: J. Reed, 1830].)  

    Brewer, E. Cobham. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Giving the Derivation, Source, or Origin of Common Phrases, Allusions, and Words That Have a Tale to Tell. Rev. ed. 2 vols. London: Cassell, 1895.

    Friend: A Religious and Literary Journal. Philadelphia. 1827–1955.

  10. 10

    Oliver Cowdery traveled to New York in October 1833 to purchase new printing equipment. He informed Ambrose Palmer on 30 October that “I purchased a Press & Types, all of which had arrived at Buffalo when I left that place: when they will arrive here is uncertain to us, as that depends upon the providences of our Heavenly Father. If however his providences are favorable, they will arrive in a few days undoubtedly.” Cowdery paid $190.60 for the printing press and $360.21 for type. (Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Ambrose Palmer, New Portage, OH, 30 Oct. 1833, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 8; F. G. Williams and Company, Account Book, 1.)  

    Cowdery, Oliver. Letterbook, 1833–1838. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

    F. G. Williams and Company. Account Book, 1833–1835. CHL. MS 783.

  11. 11

    See Historical Introduction to Prayer, 11 Jan. 1834.  

  12. 12

    By mid-January 1834, the printing office in Kirtland had printed the 16–17 December 1833 revelation, which explained why the Mormons had been expelled from Jackson County and relayed a parable indicating how Zion was to be redeemed. The church intended to send copies of the revelation to the governor of Missouri and to the president of the United States. The church also distributed copies among its branches, presumably to help recruit people and raise money for the expedition to Missouri. The Painesville Telegraph stated that the revelation was “privately circulated among the deluded followers of the impostor, Smith,” while Mormonism Unvailed declared that it “was taken up by all their priests and carried to all their congregations.” (“A Scrap of Mormonism,” Painesville [OH] Telegraph, 24 Jan. 1834, [1]; Howe, Mormonism Unvailed, 155.)  

    Painesville Telegraph. Painesville, OH. 1831–1838.

    Howe, Eber D. Mormonism Unvailed: Or, A Faithful Account of That Singular Imposition and Delusion, from Its Rise to the Present Time. With Sketches of the Characters of Its Propagators, and a Full Detail of the Manner in Which the Famous Golden Bible Was Brought before the World. To Which Are Added, Inquiries into the Probability That the Historical Part of the Said Bible Was Written by One Solomon Spalding, More Than Twenty Years Ago, and by Him Intended to Have Been Published as a Romance. Painesville, OH: By the author, 1834.

  13. 13

    See Exodus chap. 32.  

  14. 14

    Here, JS may have been referring to a revelation that was leaked to the Painesville Telegraph. The paper published the revelation on 24 January 1834. In August 1833, Oliver Cowdery warned the Church of Christ leaders in Missouri against “tatling” and admonished them to keep revelations “from false brethren & tatlers.” (See “A Scrap of Mormonism,” Painesville [OH] Telegraph, 24 Jan. 1834, [1]; Revelation, 16–17 Dec. 1833 [D&C 101]; and Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 10 Aug. 1833.)  

    Painesville Telegraph. Painesville, OH. 1831–1838.

  15. 15

    The 16–17 December 1833 revelation accompanied a petition sent in January 1834 on behalf of the Mormons to Missouri governor Daniel Dunklin. Church leaders also planned to send the revelation with a petition to U.S. president Andrew Jackson. (Letter to the Church in Clay Co., MO, 22 Jan. 1834; see also Revelation, 16–17 Dec. 1833 [D&C 101:77–89].)  

  16. 16

    See 1 Chronicles 13:9–10.  

  17. 17

    In a letter written in late February 1834, Phelps mentioned a visit from Missouri attorney general Robert W. Wells, though Phelps said nothing specific in that letter about employing Wells’s services. In a letter sent to Wells in January 1835, Phelps indicated that Wells had been working on at least one legal case for him but that he could not pay Wells the required fee. In January 1836, Wells informed Phelps that if he could pay fifty dollars by 1 March, he would consider that payment sufficient remuneration and would then “be excused from attending to the suits or acting as atty or counsel.” (Letter from William W. Phelps, 27 Feb. 1834; William W. Phelps, Liberty, MO, to Robert W. Wells, Jefferson City, MO, 5 Jan. 1835; Robert W. Wells, Jefferson City, MO, to William W. Phelps, Liberty, MO, 4 Jan. 1836, William W. Phelps, Collection of Missouri Documents, CHL.)  

    Phelps, William W. Collection of Missouri Documents, 1833–1837. CHL. MS 657.

  18. 18

    The New York debt likely refers to recent purchases made by church leaders in New York. Newel K. Whitney had purchased new goods to stock the store in Kirtland and to give to the destitute church members in Missouri. (See Minutes, 20 Feb. 1834; Minutes, 17 Mar. 1834; and F. G. Williams and Company, Account Book, 1; see also Prayer, 11 Jan. 1834; and JS, Journal, 7–9 Apr. 1834.)  

    F. G. Williams and Company. Account Book, 1833–1835. CHL. MS 783.

  19. 19

    The funds referred to here were from subscriptions to the Church of Christ’s periodical, The Evening and the Morning Star.  

  20. 20

    JS expressed a similar sentiment to church leaders in Missouri nearly a year earlier. (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 21 Apr. 1833; Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 25 June 1833.)  

  21. 21

    For JS’s earlier counsel on selling lands in Jackson County, see Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 18 Aug. 1833.  

  22. 22

    See JS, Journal, 1–2, 15, and 17 Mar. 1834.  

  23. 23

    Pratt continued to serve as a recruiter for the Missouri expedition, even when the camp was marching from Kirtland to Missouri. By 21 April 1834, Wight had returned to and again left Kirtland, this time with Hyrum Smith, to recruit additional people in Michigan Territory. This group from Michigan joined the main expedition on 8 June. (Pratt, Autobiography, 122–123; Manscill, “Journal of the Branch of the Church of Christ in Pontiac,” 167, 174.)  

    Pratt, Parley P. The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Embracing His Life, Ministry and Travels, with Extracts, in Prose and Verse, from His Miscellaneous Writings. Edited by Parley P. Pratt Jr. New York: Russell Brothers, 1874.

    Manscill, Craig K. “‘Journal of the Branch of the Church of Christ in Pontiac, . . . 1834’: Hyrum Smith’s Division of Zion’s Camp.” BYU Studies 39, no. 1 (2000): 167–188.

  24. 24

    Revelation, 30 Aug. 1831 [D&C 63:28–29]; see also Revelation, 6 Aug. 1833 [D&C 98:23–29].  

  25. 25

    In the midst of this exigent persecution, JS gave the direction to not publish revelations so that they could not be used to further enflame prejudices against church members. On 10 August 1833, Oliver Cowdery wrote a letter to church leaders in Independence, telling them that the mob attacked the Mormons in part because some church members’ “mouths” were “continually open.” Cowdery thus told church members to carefully read the revelations but to “keep them from false brethren & tatlers.” Although JS may have made the statement here out of a desire to prevent those who would misuse the revelations from obtaining them, he also may have made the statement because the church did not have the financial means at this time to publish many of the revelations. (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 10 Aug. 1833.)  

  26. 26

    TEXT: “We” is underlined three times.  

  27. 27

    All members of the United Firm were to be equal, and all purchases and products of the firm were to be used for the benefit of the church. As part of the United Firm, the Literary Firm was organized by JS to finance the church’s publication endeavors. JS also included Phelps as a member of that firm. After the destruction of the printing office in Independence, the church shifted its printing operations to Ohio under the management of F. G. Williams & Co., which was established by the United Firm. Less than two weeks later, on 10 April 1834, leaders in Kirtland decided that the United Firm “should be desolvd and each one have their stewardship set off to them.” (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 21 Apr. 1833; Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 25 June 1833; Revelation, 12 Nov. 1831 [D&C 70]; Minutes, 11 Sept. 1833; JS, Journal, 10 Apr. 1834; see also Revelation, 23 Apr. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 98, 1835 ed. [D&C 104].)  

  28. 28

    A quad is a block of type without a raised letter. Quads were used to add spaces between words or sentences.  

  29. 29

    In a 22 January 1834 letter to the church in Clay County, Missouri, Orson Hyde, on behalf of the presidency of the high priesthood, asked Thomas B. Marsh for the “entire secret of mixing or compounding lead and Antimo[n]y so as to make type mettle.” (See Letter to the Church in Clay Co., MO, 22 Jan. 1834.)  

  30. 30

    On 14 November 1833, Phelps wrote to church leaders in Kirtland of the need for clothing for dispossessed church members who had fled to Liberty, Missouri. (See Letter from William W. Phelps, 14 Nov. 1833.)  

  31. 31

    Martin Harris provided financial assistance for the church’s printing endeavors in 1834. (See F. G. Williams and Company, Account Book, 7.)  

    F. G. Williams and Company. Account Book, 1833–1835. CHL. MS 783.

  32. 32

    On 6 December 1833 Phelps and other church leaders in Missouri sent a letter to Governor Daniel Dunklin. Cowdery published a letter from Dunklin dated 19 October 1833 in the December 1833 issue of The Evening and the Morning Star. (William W. Phelps et al., Clay Co., MO, to Daniel Dunklin, 6 Dec. 1833, copy, William W. Phelps, Collection of Missouri Documents, CHL; “To His Excellency, Daniel Dunklin,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 115.)  

    Phelps, William W. Collection of Missouri Documents, 1833–1837. CHL. MS 657.

    The Evening and the Morning Star. Independence, MO, June 1832–July 1833; Kirtland, OH, Dec. 1833–Sept. 1834.

  33. 33

    Probably Solomon Wilbur Denton. (See F. G. Williams and Company, Account Book, 4.)  

    F. G. Williams and Company. Account Book, 1833–1835. CHL. MS 783.