Minutes, 17 August 1835

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

General Assembly,
Convened in August 17th. A.D. 1835 by the of the , for the purpose of Examining a book of commandments and covenants, which has been compiled and written by the following committee, which was appointed by a general assembly of the Church in Sept. 24th 1834 & instructing the writers of said Book. This committee was nominated, by the Speaker of the , seconded & voted into this office, by the whole body of the church then assembled. The names of the Committe are as follows Joseph Smith Junr. , & . This Committe having finished said Book according to the instructions given them, it was deemed necessary to call the general assembly of the Church to see whether the book be approved or not by the Authoroties of the church, that it may, if approved, become a law. unto the church, and a rule of faith and practice unto the same. Therefore, this assembly was called to order & organized as follows. First the Presidents of the church in , (Viz.)
)present and took the lead of the meeting
)
Joseph Smith Junr.)absent
&)
)
John also present
The High Council of .
No. 1
3
5
M[arvel] C. DavisWillard Woodstock
Amos R. OrtonGiles Cook
[p. 98]
of the from ,
&
High Counsellors
Morris Phelps
Elias Hutchings
Edson Barney
The High councils took their seats in regular order according to their appointments.
Also the seven Presidents of the Elders.
Also twenty seven of the seventy Elders and sons of .
The in , & acted as counsellors.
The from
acted instead of (absent) & acted as counsellors
President of the
,
Thirty one of the Elders of the ,
President of the
and Eight priests,
President of the ,
and one deacon
President of the , and six Teachers.
Brother appointed as President to keep order among the members, and prevent disturbance in the House. [p. 99]
appointed to lead in singing,
Sung the following Hymn, Glorious things of thee are Spoken &c.
Also When I can read my title clear &c
took the stand and opened the services of the day. by prayer to God, that his spirit might inspire us to do all business in Righteousness before him, after which sung, Beyond these earthly scenes in sight &c Then Presidents, & proceeded to Morris Phelps to the by the voice of the Presidency. they said, The Lord instruct with all wisdom necessary to fill this important station according to the will of God, Thou shalt, if faithful be sent to the nations of the Earth, and gather Sheaves from the East & West & from the North & South— with all power necessary to accomplish thy Mission. Then Presidents. & , proceeded, by the voice of the to ordain Elder to the first 70 saying, Dear brother, in the name of Jesus Christ, we lay our hands upon thy head & ordain thee to this ministry, to bear the tidings of the fullness of the everlasting gospel to all nations kindreds, tongues & people: Yea though thou shalt have power to go from nation to nation & from Island to Island & proclaim my gospel in all the different languages & tongues of the earth & shall have power over all thy enemies, & shall be a swift herald of the cross. None shall stay thy hand, & if faithful the Lord shall give the[e] power to fill this Mission, also wisdom from Heaven, righteousness & truth, that thou mayest accomplish the same, and in old age return to bringing multitudes with thee. having overcome all things and accomplished a good work, to the acceptance of thy Heavenly Father to rejoice in his Kingdom, with songs of Everlasting joy. all these blessings we upon thy head, in the name of Jesus Christ even so, Amen.
Also Brother Sherman Gilbert to the office of an Elder to bear the glad tidings of the [p. 100] gospel to the inhabitants of the earth. because thou hast offerd thy life as a sacrafice thou shalt be numbered with the 2d to proclaim the Gospel to the nations of the Earth. The Lord shall bless the[e] with blessing upon blessing & wisdom upon wisdom; also visions and instructions from heaven, until the heart is stored with all wisdom, and thou shalt have an in the land of , whither thou wentest to lay down thy life for thy brethren, that thou mayest have a place to lay thy head, when thou shalt have accomplished thy mission that the Lord has alloted unto thee and if thou art faithful, all these blessings shall crown thy head, even so, Amen;
Also Brother , blessed in the name of Jesus Christ, in the following manner, because thou didst leave thy family in thy old age and go up to Zion to redeem thy brethren, blessing after blessing shall roll upon the[e] until thou art satisfied, and <​thou​> shalt know the truth of the Religion that thou dost profess, by the administration of angels, and wisdom from on high shalt rest upon thee. The Lord himself shall be upon thy right hand to uphold thee. And if thou desirest thou shalt go forth to proclaim the fullness of my gospel, with all the qualifications necessary to accomplish a good work. and if thou art faithful, thou shalt come down to thy grave in peace, having over come all things, even so, Amen.
Also Brother was blessed in the following manner. In the name of Jesus Christ we pray that blessings may rest upon thee because thou wentest to Zion to lay down thy life for thy brethren, Thou art young but shalt, if faithful be called to the ministry in maturer age, and proclaim the gospel to many people, and live to the coming of the son of man. Waters shall not drown thee, fire shall not burn thee, Enemies shall not prevail against thee in if faithful & if not thy end shall be in darkness & bitterness for ever. [p. 101]
If faithful, thou shalt receive all these blessings even so, Amen.
Also Benjamin Gifford, blessed as follows. In the name of Jesus Christ we ask our heavenly Father to bless thee in thy youth, & cleanse the[e] from sin, and prepare the[e] to receive an with the sons of , after the scourges are over. If thou art faithful the Lord, shall give the[e] Wisdom after Wisdom, grace after grace, until thou be prepared to take in the ministry with thy brethren, and go forth and do a great work in company with them, and be equal to them in all things, & do much good in proclaiming the gospel & if faithful, thou shalt return, with Joy to Zion, even so amen.
Also Elder, , Blessed as follows, in the name of Jesus Christ, we the blessings of the upon the[e] which thou hast already received. Thy head is already beginning to blossom for the grave, but the Lord shall give the[e] vigor of youth. Thou shalt see thy hearts desire in the redemption of Zion. Thy prayers have reached the heavens in her behalf, and thou shalt see her in her glory, and leap & praise God upon her land, Thy God hath looked upon thee and preserved thee and thou shalt gather many sons and daughters to Zion, who shall be as stars in the crown of thy rejoicing. And if thou art faithful, thou shalt receive all these blessings, even so— Amen.
Also Brother Joseph Hartshorn blessed as follows. Our aged brother. with peculiar feelings we lay our hands upon thy head, and ask our heavenly Father, in the name of Jesus Christ to bless thee. Our hearts are full of blessings for thee. Thou hast despised the infirmities of age and gone with thy younger brethren to the redemption of Zion. The Lord shall give the[e] blessing upon blessing, grace after grace and lead thee gently like a child & if it be wisdom, thy [p. 102] hearing shall be restored, if faithful angels, shall minister unto thee around thy death bed, and bear thy departing spirit like Lazarus to rest in Abraham’s bosom. to inherit all the glory of the , even so Amen.
singing at intervals how precious is the name, &c.
Adjourned one hour. The blessings of the spiritual Kingdom pronounced by
Met again according to adjournment and proceeded to business. Called the names of all the Presidents of the several departments of the Assembly and found their full.
Sung the praise of God as follows, All hail! the power of Jesus <​name​>, President arose & rebuked some of the Authorities for not being in their seats at the time appointed
President then arose with the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, (284 pages) contain[in]g the faith articles and covinants of the , then proceeded to take the vote of the whole House commencing with the Presidents of . President . arose & spoke in high commendation of the book aforenamed & said, That he had examined it carefully, that it was well arranged and calculated to govern the church in righteousness, if followed would bring the members to see eye to eye. And further that he had received the testimony from God, that the Revelations and contained therein are true, wherefore, he knew assuredly for himself having received witness from Heaven, & not from men. President testified also that he was well acquainted with the work & knew it to be true. and from. God. President arose and testified his Joy, that we have at length receivd the long wished for document to govern the church in righteousness and bring the to see eye to eye: and further that he was present when some of the revelations contained therein were given, and was satisfied [p. 103] they came from God. then called the Vote of the Presidency which was carried as follows That they would receive the Book as the rule of their faith & practice, and put themselves under the guidance of the same and also that they were satisfied with the committee that were chosen to compile it, as having discharged their duty faithfully. The vote of the was then called and carried in confirmation of th[e] above. Counsellor , then arose and said that he had examined as many of the revelations contained in the book as were printed in . & as firmly believes them as he does the Book of Mormon or the Bible and also the whole contents of the Book, he then called for the vote of the High Council from Zion, which they gave in favor of the Book and also of the committee. , then arose and read the written testimony of the in favor of the Book and the Committe who compiled it. the Presidents of the Apostles were then called upon to give their decision on the said Book. President who was appointed to speak for the 70 on this occasion took the Book & said that he had examined the Lectures and many of the Revelations contained in it, and was perfectly satisfied with the same, and further, that he knew that they were true by the testimony of the Holy Spirit of God given unto him; he then called for the Vote of as many of the 70 as were present, which was unanimously given in favor of the Book, and also that they were perfectly satisfied with the committee that compiled it. The Book was then presented to of , who received it & testified that he had examined the Lectures that were contained in it, and that he believed them beyond a doubt, and the revelations contained in it he knew were true, for God had testified to him by his holy Spirit, for many of them were given [p. 104] under his roof & in his presence through Joseph Joseph Smith Junr the Prophet of Lord. He then called for the Vote of his . which was given in favor of the Book and also of the Committee that compiled it. as having discharged their duty faithfully. The Book was then handed to , who acted in the place of in (absent) He said that he received it with great Joy and was perfectly satisfied with the same, and most cordially received it as a rule of faith and practice, and also his entire satisfaction with the labors of the Committee. He also stated that he knew the work. to be true, then called for the vote of his council which was given in favor of the book and of the committee. then took the Book and said that he knew it was true, and also th[e] Book of Mormon, because he had received the testimony of the Spirit in favor of them, and that he was well satisfied with the committee He called for th[e] voice of the Elders which was given in favor of the work & <​that​> they were satisfied with the committee: took the Book and said. he was present in the general assembly which appointed the committee, And that he was well satisfied with the fruit of their labors. He then took the Vote of the Priests, who gave their voice to receive it, being satisfied with the labors of the committee The book being handed to ; He arose and said, he had been present when one of the revelations contained in it was given, and that he receivved it at the time, as coming from God, and that he was willing to be governed by the rules contained in the book, for he verily believed them to be good, & he was well satisfied with the labors of the committe. He also obtained the voice of all the Teachers present in favor of the work and the Committee. [p. 105]
took the Book into his hands stating that he fully approved of the matter contained in it, & gave his voice in favor of the committee, There being only one Deacon present beside himself, he called upon him to give his voice concerning this book, & he said he received it with Joy and was satisfied with the Committee.
Brother Then took the Book and expressed his satisfaction with it, and also called a vote of all the members present, both male & female, & They gave a decided voice in favor of it & also of the committee. There being a very large portion of the present. All of the above testimonies and votes were voluntarily & unhesitatingly given with the utmost freedom of conscience on part of the Assembly. then arose & read a chapter of Rules for Marriage among the saints: And the whole church voted to receive it, It is therefore to be attached to the book. , then arose and read an instrument containing certain principles or items upon laws in general. & church government,
Vote of the whole house called for, & unanimously given by the usual sign of uplifted hands in favor of the same.
The services of the day closed by prayer, the congregation then arose & sung a hymn precious is the name. &c. President. then dismissed the assembly by invoking the blessing of heaven with uplifted hands
)Clerks
)
)
[p. 106]

Footnotes

  1. 1

    Samuel Smith, a member of the high council, made the nomination and Hyrum Smith seconded it. (Minutes, 24 Sept. 1834.)  

  2. 2

    The minutes of the 24 September 1834 meeting refer to it as a meeting of the Kirtland high council, but the minutes also mention “the whole conference” agreeing to the high council’s actions. (Minutes, 24 Sept. 1834.)  

  3. 3

    These were the members of the First Presidency, or presidency of the high priesthood.  

  4. 4

    Hyrum Smith and Joseph Smith Sr. were ordained to the presidency of the high priesthood in December 1834. It is unclear why they are not listed here with the other four. One possibility is that the minutes listed only those members of the presidency who were also members of the committee appointed to compile the Doctrine and Covenants. (Account of Meetings, Revelation, and Blessing, 5–6 Dec. 1834.)  

  5. 5

    John Smith was a member of the Kirtland high council, but no records prior to this time show him functioning as the president of the Kirtland high council. When the high council was organized, JS, Sidney Rigdon, and Frederick G. Williams were specifically appointed as its presidency. The version of these minutes published in the Doctrine and Covenants state that “Elder” John Smith took “the lead of the high council in Kirtland” but do not mention him functioning as a president of the council. In January 1836, at a meeting where leaders of the church were anointed in preparation for the dedication of the House of the Lord, Hyrum Smith anointed John Smith as “the president of the counsellors in Kirtland,” indicating he was functioning in that position at that time. (Revised Minutes, 18–19 Feb. 1834 [D&C 102:3]; “General Assembly,” in Doctrine and Covenants, 1835 ed., 256; JS, Journal, 21 Jan. 1836.)  

  6. 6

    Lyon, who had been living in Warsaw, New York, moved to Kirtland sometime after 6 August 1833. A “Father Lions” (presumably Lyon) participated in a Kirtland high council meeting in February 1834. (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 6 Aug. 1833; Minutes, 19 Feb. 1834.)  

  7. 7

    The numbers 1, 3, and 5 refer to how the high council was ordered for the meeting. It is not clear why no numbers appear by the names of other members of the council, but John Smith, Samuel H. Smith, and Jared Carter were the only original members of the Kirtland high council present at this meeting. (Revised Minutes, 18–19 Feb. 1834 [D&C 102:3].)  

  8. 8

    Sherwood was ordained an elder in August 1832 and was blessed in a 7–8 March 1835 meeting in Kirtland for his participation in the construction of the House of the Lord. (Jared Carter, Journal, 115; Minutes and Discourses, 7–8 Mar. 1835.)  

    Carter, Jared. Journal, 1831–1833. CHL. MS 1441.

  9. 9

    Johnson was appointed to the Kirtland high council on 28 August 1834 to replace John S. Carter, who had died. Aside from Johnson, John Smith, Samuel Smith, and Jared Carter, the rest of the individuals listed as members of the Kirtland high council were apparently substitutes for that day. (Minutes, 28–29 Aug. 1834.)  

  10. 10

    Davis was ordained an elder at a 7–8 March 1835 meeting in Kirtland. He was also blessed in that meeting for his participation in the construction of the House of the Lord. (Minutes and Discourses, 7–8 Mar. 1835.)  

  11. 11

    Woodstock was ordained a high priest on 8 June 1833 in Bath, New Hampshire. (“History of Orson Pratt,” 16, Historian’s Office, Histories of the Twelve, 1856–1858, 1861, CHL.)  

    Historian’s Office. Histories of the Twelve, 1856–1858, 1861. CHL. CR 100 93.

  12. 12

    Orton was ordained an elder at a 7–8 March 1835 meeting in Kirtland. He was also blessed in that meeting for assisting in the construction of the House of the Lord. He helped Brigham Young and John Greene preach to American Indians in New York in May 1835. (Minutes and Discourses, 7–8 Mar. 1835; Young, Journal, 25 May 1835.)  

    Young, Brigham. Journals, 1832–1877. Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1, boxes 71–73.

  13. 13

    Cook was ordained an elder at a 7–8 March 1835 meeting in Kirtland. He was also blessed at that meeting for participating in the construction of the House of the Lord. (Minutes and Discourses, 7–8 Mar. 1835.)  

  14. 14

    Levi Jackman and Knight are the only two original members of the Missouri high council listed here. (Minutes, 3 July 1834.)  

  15. 15

    Groves had preached in Illinois in winter 1834–1835 and then traveled to Kirtland, preaching as he went. He arrived in Kirtland on 11 August 1835. (Elisha Groves, Autobiographical Sketch, 2–3, Obituary Notices and Biographies, CHL.)  

    Obituary Notices and Biographies, 1854–1877. CHL. MS 4760.

  16. 16

    Elias Higbee had substituted on the council previously and had been preaching in Illinois and other locations prior to coming to Kirtland, where he arrived by 10 August 1835. (Minute Book 2, 21 Aug. 1834; “Extract of a Letter,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, June 1835, 1:142; Minutes, 10 Aug. 1835.)  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  17. 17

    Phelps was baptized in August 1831 in Cook County, Illinois, and was ordained an elder sometime thereafter. (Openshaw, “History of Morris Phelps,” 2–3.)  

    Openshaw, Rose. “The History of Morris Phelps,” no date. Typescript. CHL. MS 11749.

  18. 18

    Parrish had been preaching in Tennessee and had just reached Kirtland a few days before. (“From the Letters of the Elders Abroad,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, Aug. 1835, 1:167–168.)  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  19. 19

    Emmett was baptized in 1831 and ordained an elder by April 1832. He applied to the Missouri high council in September 1834 “to be promoted to the high priesthood” and preached with Peter Dustin from December 1834 to July 1835, baptizing twenty-two individuals during that time. (Bennett, “Mormon Renegade,” 218; Minutes, 26–27 Apr. 1832; Minute Book 2, 10 Sept. 1834; Letters from Elders Abroad, LDS Messenger and Advocate, July 1835, 1:160.)  

    Bennett, Richard E. “Mormon Renegade: James Emmett at the Vermillion, 1846.” South Dakota History 15, no. 3 (Fall 1985): 217–233.

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  20. 20

    Hutchings was a member of the Seventy in Kirtland. (Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 1 Mar. 1835.)  

  21. 21

    Barney had participated in the Camp of Israel expedition. (Account with the Church of Christ, ca. 11–29 Aug. 1834.)  

  22. 22

    Harpin Riggs, Joseph Hancock, and Almon Babbitt were all acting as presidents of the Seventy. All three were members of the Seventy, but none had been ordained presidents. (“The Twelve Apostles,” 7 Apr. 1836.)  

    The Twelve Apostles. [Kirtland, OH: ca. Apr. 1836]. Copy at CHL.

  23. 23

    “Sons of Zion” appears to be a name for those who had gone on the Camp of Israel expedition. All of the Seventy (or “seventy Elders,” as they are designated here) had participated in the Camp of Israel; thus, they were all “sons of Zion.” (See Minutes, 8 Aug. 1835; Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 14–15 Feb. 1835; Minutes and Blessings, 28 Feb.–1 Mar. 1835; and Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 1 Mar. 1835.)  

  24. 24

    Reynolds Cahoon and Hyrum Smith were Bishop Newel K. Whitney’s counselors. Granger was acting as counselor in place of Hyrum Smith, who was absent. Smith had left Kirtland with Jared Carter in May 1835 to raise money in the eastern United States for the construction of the House of the Lord. Although Carter, who attended this meeting, had apparently returned, Smith may still have been on that mission, or he may have accompanied JS and Frederick G. Williams to Michigan Territory. Oliver Granger had also acted as a counselor in place of Smith at a 2 May 1835 council. (Editorial, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Apr. 1835, 1:107–108; Minutes and Discourse, 2 May 1835.)  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  25. 25

    Edward Partridge was the bishop in Zion (Missouri), with Isaac Morley and John Corrill serving as his counselors. (Revelation, 4 Feb. 1831 [D&C 41:9]; Minutes, ca. 3–4 June 1831.)  

  26. 26

    John Gould was ordained an elder on 17 December 1832. He had been serving as the presiding elder of the Westfield, New York, branch in May 1835 but was in Kirtland by 10 August 1835, when he participated in a high council meeting. As published in the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants, the minutes say that Gould represented the “travelling elders.” (Patten, Journal, 17 Dec. 1832; Record of the Twelve, 4–9 May 1835; Minutes, 10 Aug. 1835; “General Assembly,” in Doctrine and Covenants, 1835 ed., 255.)  

    Patten, David W. Journal, 1832–1834. CHL. MS 603.

  27. 27

    The version of these minutes in the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants lists Gould, Ames, and Burgess as “acting President[s].” (“General Assembly,” in Doctrine and Covenants, 1835 ed., 255.)  

  28. 28

    According to the version of these minutes in the Doctrine and Covenants, Erastus Babbitt was the “acting President” of the teachers referred to here. (“General Assembly,” in Doctrine and Covenants, 1835 ed., 255.)  

  29. 29

    Gates was assisted in this responsibility by John Young, William Cowdery, Andrew H. Aldrich, Job Lewis, and Oliver Higley. The version of these minutes published in the Doctrine and Covenants refers to them as “Presidents of the day.” It is not clear where this assembly met. It may have been in the unfinished House of the Lord, where meetings were sometimes held, or the assembly may have met in the church’s schoolhouse, located west of the House of the Lord. (“General Assembly,” in Doctrine and Covenants, 1835 ed., 255; Minutes, 26 Apr. 1835; “Portion of Kirtland Township, Ohio, 12 January 1838;” Berrett, Sacred Places, 3:29.)  

    Berrett, LaMar C., ed. Sacred Places: A Comprehensive Guide to Early LDS Historical Sites. 6 vols. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1999–2007.

  30. 30

    Written by Isaac Watts, this hymn was also titled “The Hopes of Heaven our Support under Trials on Earth.” Its first stanza read, “When I can read my title clear / To mansions in the skies, / I bid farewell to every fear, / And wipe my weeping eyes.” (Burder, Psalms and Hymns of the Rev. Isaac Watts, 359.)  

    Burder, G. The Psalms and Hymns of the Rev. Isaac Watts, D. D. London: C. Whittingham, 1806.

  31. 31

    This hymn was published as “The Celestial Home” in the July 1832 issue of The Evening and the Morning Star. It is not clear who authored it. The chorus of the hymn reads, “O the home, the glorious home, / Of the beloved Son, / Where the righteous all shall meet / And be forever one!” (“Hymns,” The Evening and the Morning Star, July 1832, [8].)  

    The Evening and the Morning Star. Independence, MO, June 1832–July 1833; Kirtland, OH, Dec. 1833–Sept. 1834.

  32. 32

    This ordination was to the office of high priest.  

  33. 33

    According to the Instruction on Priesthood, when seventy men had been chosen as seventies, the presidents of the seventy were to “choose other seventy besides the first seventy,” up to “seven times seventy.” (Instruction on Priesthood, between ca. 1 Mar. and ca. 4 May 1835 [D&C 107:95–96].)  

  34. 34

    See Revelation, 3 Nov. 1831 [D&C 133:57]; Revelation, 29 Oct. 1831 [D&C 66:2]; and Revelation, ca. Aug. 1835 [D&C 27:5].  

  35. 35

    Gilbert was a participant in the Camp of Israel expedition. (Account with the Church of Christ, ca. 11–29 Aug. 1834.)  

  36. 36

    James Foster who was born in 1786, was another participant in the Camp of Israel. (Blessing for James Foster, 27 Aug. 1835, in Patriarchal Blessings, 2:37; Account with the Church of Christ, ca. 11–29 Aug. 1834.)  

    Patriarchal Blessings, 1833–. CHL. CR 500 2.

  37. 37

    When Gould went on the Camp of Israel expedition, he was not yet a member of the church. He was baptized in June while on the expedition. (“Extracts from H. C. Kimball’s Journal,” Times and Seasons, 1 Feb. 1845, 6:789.)  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  38. 38

    It is unclear when Gould was born, but the 1840 census lists a Dean Gould living in Rutland, Lake County, Ohio, as being between twenty and twenty-nine years old. (1840 U.S. Census, Rutland, Lake Co., OH, 93.)  

    Census (U.S.) / U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population Schedules. Microfilm. FHL.

  39. 39

    Gifford, who was born in 1821, was a member of the Camp of Israel and was the son of Levi Gifford. (Account with the Church of Christ, ca. 11–29 Aug. 1834; “Benjamin Archibald Gifford,” in “Descendants of Matthew & Mary Wing,” 498; Youngberg, Conquerors of the West, 2:865–866.)  

    “Descendants of Matthew and Mary Wing of Banbury, Oxfordshire, England.” Wing Family of America. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wingfamilyofamerica/.

    Youngberg, Florence C., ed. Conquerors of the West: Stalwart Mormon Pioneers. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Sons of Utah Pioneers, 1999.

  40. 40

    See Isaiah 51:11; Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 77 [2 Nephi 8:11]; and Revelation, 16–17 Dec. 1833 [D&C 101:18].  

  41. 41

    Groves joined the Camp of Israel at the Salt River in Missouri in June 1834. He was ordained a high priest sometime around September 1834. (Elisha Groves, Autobiographical Sketch, 2, Obituary Notices and Biographies, CHL.)  

    Obituary Notices and Biographies, 1854–1877. CHL. MS 4760.

  42. 42

    Groves, who was born in 1797, was around thirty-eight years old at this time. (Elisha Groves, Autobiographical Sketch, 1, Obituary Notices and Biographies, CHL.)  

    Obituary Notices and Biographies, 1854–1877. CHL. MS 4760.

  43. 43

    See Acts 3:8.  

  44. 44

    See 1 Thessalonians 2:19.  

  45. 45

    Joseph Hartshorn was also a participant in the Camp of Israel expedition. He was born around 1765 in New England and lived in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in 1830. (Account with the Church of Christ, ca. 11–29 Aug. 1834; Hartshorn, “Descendants of Joseph Hartshorn,” 1; 1830 U.S. Census, Springfield, Erie Co., PA, 337.)  

    Hartshorn, Derick S. “Descendants of Joseph Hartshorn.” Unpublished paper. Conover, NC, no date. http://www.hartshorn.us/Family/JosephHartshorn.pdf.

    Census (U.S.) / U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population Schedules. Microfilm. FHL.

  46. 46

    See Luke 16:20–22.  

  47. 47

    The hymn “How Precious is the Name” was included in an 1830 publication of Methodist camp meeting hymns. Its first stanza reads, “How precious is the name, brethren sing, brethren sing / How precious is the name, brethren sing, / How precious is the name of Christ our Paschal Lamb, / Who bore our sin and shame, on the tree, on the tree.” (Scott, New and Improved Camp Meeting Hymn Book, 23.)  

    Scott, Orange. The New and Improved Camp Meeting Hymn Book: Being a Choice Selection of Hymns from the Most Approved Authors, Designed to Aid in the Public and Private Devotions of Christians. Brookfield, MA: By the author, 1830.

  48. 48

    An article likely penned by Rigdon and published in the September 1835 issue of the Messenger and Advocate also referred to the “spiritual kingdom,” which it called “the world to come.” In addition, Caleb Baldwin’s patriarchal blessing, given on 27 August 1835, contains the language, “I seal upon thy head all the blessings of the spiritual kingdom.” ([Sidney Rigdon], “The Ancient Order of Things,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, Sept. 1835, 1:185; Blessing for Caleb Baldwin, 27 Aug. 1835, in Patriarchal Blessings, 1:28.)  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

    Patriarchal Blessings, 1833–. CHL. CR 500 2.

  49. 49

    Probably the hymn “All Hail the Power of Jesus’ Name” by Edward Perronet, an independent preacher living in England. This hymn was one of the most frequently published evangelical hymns between the years 1737 and 1860. (Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, 889–891; Marini, “Hymnody as History,” 280.)  

    Julian, John, ed. A Dictionary of Hymnology: Setting Forth the Origin and History of Christian Hymns of All Ages and Nations with Special Reference to ose Contained in the Hymn Books of English-Speaking Countries, and Now in Common Use. . . . New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1892.

    Marini, Stephen. “Hymnody as History: Early Evangelical Hymns and the Recovery of American Popular Religion.” Church History 71, no. 2 (June 2002): 273–306.

  50. 50

    Since the Doctrine and Covenants was not yet published at the time of this meeting, it is likely that Warren Cowdery inserted the precise number of pages when he later copied the minutes into Minute Book 1. With the addition of the minutes of this 17 August meeting and the two statements that the assembly voted to include, the book contained 283 pages—or 284 if the blank back side of the last page is counted. (Doctrine and Covenants, 1835 ed.)  

  51. 51

    That is, the presidents of the Missouri high council.  

  52. 52

    An article in the May 1835 Messenger and Advocate stated that the Doctrine and Covenants would give church members “a perfect understanding of the doctrine believed by this society.” (Editorial, LDS Messenger and Advocate, May 1835, 1:122.)  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  53. 53

    According to the published minutes, Smith called for a vote of the Kirtland high council, not its presidency. (“General Assembly,” in Doctrine and Covenants, 1835 ed., 256.)  

  54. 54

    For a table showing which revelations in the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants were also in the Book of Commandments, see “Corresponding Section Numbers in Editions of the Doctrine and Covenants.”)  

  55. 55

    The Doctrine and Covenants version of these minutes includes the “written testimony of the Twelve.” Except for minor punctuation and spelling differences and nine word changes or additions, the text of this testimony is the same as the testimony prepared for the Book of Commandments, which was signed in 1831 by several church elders, including six who were called as members of the Twelve Apostles in 1835: Orson Hyde, William E. McLellin, Luke Johnson, Lyman Johnson, Parley P. Pratt, and Thomas B. Marsh. That testimony, as presented in this meeting, read: “The testimony of the witnesses to the book of the Lord’s commandments, which he gave to his church through Joseph Smith, jr. who was appointed by the voice of the church for this purpose: we therefore feel willing to bear testimony to all the world of mankind, to every creature upon the face of all the earth, and upon the islands of the sea, that the Lord has borne record to our souls, through the Holy Ghost shed forth upon us, that these commandments were given by inspiration of God, and are profitable for all men, and are verily true. We give this testimony unto the world, the Lord being our helper: and it is through the grace of God, the Father, and his Son Jesus Christ, that we are permitted to have this privilege of bearing this testimony unto the world, in the which we rejoice exceedingly, praying the Lord always, that the children of men may be profited thereby.” Since none of the Twelve were in Kirtland at this time, it is not clear when, or if, any members of the Twelve gave their assent to using that testimony as their testimony of the Doctrine and Covenants. After leaving the church, McLellin called the testimony printed in the Doctrine and Covenants “a base forgery” and indicated he did not approve of the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants because so many changes were made to the revelations. However, there is no record of McLellin voicing such disapproval in the 1830s. (“General Assembly,” in Doctrine and Covenants, 1835 ed., 256; Testimony, ca. 2 Nov. 1831; Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 14–15 Feb. 1835; William E. McLellin, Independence, MO, to Elder M. H. Forscutt, Plano, IL, Oct. 1870, in True Latter Day Saints’ Herald, 1 Aug. 1872, 472.)  

    Saints’ Herald. Independence, MO. 1860–.

  56. 56

    The Seventy, who had been sent forth to preach much like the apostles, were considered “brother ministers” to the apostles. According to the Instruction on Priesthood, they also formed a body equal in authority to the Twelve. This may account for the reference here as “70 Apostles.” (Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 1 Mar. 1835; Instruction on Priesthood, between ca. 1 Mar. and ca. 4 May 1835 [D&C 107:26].)  

  57. 57

    JS and his family lived in Newel K. Whitney’s white store from September 1832 to around November 1833. While there, JS used an upstairs room as a “translating room,” where he dictated several revelations. ([Emma Smith], List, ca. 1845, in Lucy Mack Smith, History, 1844–1845, Miscellany; Staker, Hearken, O Ye People, 251; JS, Journal, 22 Nov. 1833; 9 and 11 Dec. 1833; Minutes, 27–28 Dec. 1832; School of the Prophets Salt Lake City Minutes, 3 Oct. 1883; School of the Prophets Saint George Minutes, 23 Dec. 1883.)  

    Smith, Lucy Mack. History, 1844–1845. 18 books. CHL. MS 2049. Also available at josephsmithpapers.org.

    Staker, Mark L. Hearken, O Ye People: The Historical Setting of Joseph Smith’s Ohio Revelations. Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2009.

    School of the Prophets Salt Lake City Minutes, Apr.–Dec. 1883. CHL.

    School of the Prophets Saint George Records, 1883, 1885. CHL.

  58. 58

    Statement on Marriage, ca. Aug. 1835.  

  59. 59

    Declaration on Government and Law, ca. Aug. 1835 [D&C 134].  

  60. 60

    See Leviticus 9:22; Luke 24:50; and Revelation, 27–28 Dec. 1832 [D&C 88:120].