Hebrew Grammar Worksheets, 1836, Amasa Lyman Copy

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  • Historical Introduction

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Hebrew Grammar
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איתן משׁה וכלב
מ signifies from, out of, on account of, in comparison with.
ה " [signifies] the, this, that.
ו " [signifies] and, but, yet, then, that.
כ " [signifies] as, like, according to, when.
ל " [signifies] to, as to, for, of.
ב " [signifies] in, with, over, by.
The article the is sometimes to be supplied after some of the above prefixes.
Nouns are formed from verbs, 1. By changing their vowels.
2. By dropping one (sometimes two) letters of the root.
3. By adding to a root,
ה ,נ ,מ י at the end,
א מ at the beginning,
ת at the beginning or end,
ו or י in the middle.
Terminations of Nouns.
וּת יִת ה singular fem.
תׁ וֺת plural fem.
ת ַת ֵה construct fem. sing.
ם ִים. plural masc.
י ֵ plur. construct.
יִַם dual.
Note. A perfect root contains three radical letters, an imperfect root contains but two or one.
Possessive Pronouns, called Suffixes.
a book.
י -ִ my
ךָ כָה ךְ thy
וֺ הוּ ו his (its)
הּ הָ her (its)
נוּ our
כֶם כֶּן your
הֶם ם הֶן their
י -ִ ךָ
וֺ כ
ם ךְ
[p. 1]
[verso of p. 1 blank]
<​A root contains 3 letters & is pointed with Kaumets & Pattakh ( ַ ); but if the last radical be א or ה then the root is pointed with two Kaumets​>
Verbs with Sufformatives.
פָּקַד he visited, רָאָה he saw, קָרָא he called,
ה she
תָ ת תְ thou
תִי תִ I
נוּ we
תֶם תֶן ye
ֻ וּ they <​ye impritive [imperative]​>
The prefix ו (and, but yet, &c.) prefixed to a past tense often changes it into the future.
Verbs Future Tense, with Praeformatives and Sufformatives.
he visited,
י he shall, let it, let there, may he, it.
ת she shall or will, let her; thou shalt.
נ we shall or will, let us.
<​—א​> <​I shall or will let me​>
ת—וּ ye shall or will
ת—נָה ye or they shall or will fem.
ֻ י—וּ they shall or will.
The prefix ו frequently changes the future into the past tense.
<​ה כ ךְ ק א וֺ י​>
<​מ ל ח ת א ץ​>
<​מ​> [p. 2]
[verso of p. 2 blank]
Names and Significations of the Conjugations.
Kal, Niphal, Piel, Pual, Hiphil, Hophal, Hithpael.
Kal is active; all roots are in Kal.
Niphal is passive; it is made by prefixing נ to the root.
Hiphil is causative; it is formed by prefixing a ה to, and inserting (not always) a י in the root.
Hophal is passive; it prefixes הוּ הְָ or הֻ to the root.
Hithpael is either active or passive; it prefixes הִתְ to the root.
Piel is active, and Pual is passive. They have the same letters as Kal; but are differently pointed; as שִׁלַּח , שִׁלֵּחַ , נִחַם צִוָּה , פִּקֵּד Piel נֻחַם צֻוָּה , פֻּקַּד Pual. <​ect,​>
Piel frequently takes Tsaree under the first radical, and Pual frequently has Kholem for the first radical; as בֵּרַךְ בֵּרֵךְ Piel, בֹּרַךְ Pual.
1. The present participle Kal has a Kholem ( וֹ –ֹ ) for the vowel of the first radical; as [blank]
מ Prefixed often denotes a participle.
ה Prefixed to a participle signifies who, that, which.
2. Niphal participle prefixes נ to the root.
3. The passive participle Kal takes the vowel Shoorek וּ or Kibbuts ֻ for the second radical.
Imperative and Infinitive Moods.
The Imperative and Infinitive take the vowel Kholem ( וֹ –ֹ ) or short Kaumets ְ ָ for the second radical.
<​נ וֺ​> [p. 3]
[verso of p. 3 blank]
Verbs לה <​See § 42​>
1. Verbs which have ה for a last radical change their ה into וֹת in the infinitive of all conjugations.
2. The radical ה is changed into י when תִי I, ת thou, נוּ we, or תֶן תֶם ye, is put at the end of these verbs.
3 When ה (she) is put at the end, the radical ה is changed into ת.
Verbs פּנ & פּי <​See § 42​>
Verbs which have י or נ for their first radical lose their י and נ in the Imperative and Infinitive moods; and in the Infinitive they postfix a ת.
Verbs עע & עו. <​See § 42​>
These verbs have only two letters in the third person, praeter, Kal; the real root is in the Infinitive; as בָּא (instead of בָוָא ) he went, from קָים ;בּוֹא he arose from מֵת ;קוּם he died, from סַבּ ;מוּת he surrounded, from סָבַב.
Of Imperfect Verbs.
If a root loses its first radical, it is a נ or י ; if it loses its second radical, it is a ו (seldom י); if it loses its last radical, it is a ה; hence, if only two letters of a root are left, you must add thereto one of these letters to make up the root.
Note 1. If one letter of a root remain, always prefix a נ and suffix a ה
Note 2. The verb נתַן he gave, frequently loses its last ן; the verb לָקַח he took, frequently drops its ל.
Note 3. Some verbs require their second radical to be repeated in order to make up the root; as סַב from סָבַב [p. 4]
[verso of p. 4 blank]
Verbs עו
Verbs which have a ו (or י) for their second radical, make their roots in the infinitive mood; as מוּת (not מָוַת) to die; בּוֹא (not בָוָא) to go, come, bring.
Nouns in Construction.
When two nouns come together, of, or of the, must be placed between them when the sense requires it.
Of Niphal Future.
In the future tense of Niphal, the נ characteristic is always left out; but a Dagesh in the first radical will determine the Niphal conjugation; as יִפָּקֵד for יִנְפָקֵד [blank] for [blank]
Note. When either of the letters ה ח ר א or ע is the first radical (these letters never take a dagesh), then the future letter which excludes the נ, takes a Tsaree ( ֵ ) under it; as תֵּרָאֶה for תִּרָאֶה or in full [blank] for [blank] etc.
Niphal Imperative & Infinitive.
The Infinitive and Imperative Niphal, prefixes הִ׀ָּ or הֵ׀ָ to the root.
Hiphil Infin. and Imperative.
הַ prefixed to the verb is the sign of the Infinitive and Imperative Hiphil.
הָ is prefixed when the verb has lost its middle radical ו.
הוֹ or הֹ is prefixed when the root has a י for the first radical; See § 51.
אֶת־) אֵת) The Sign of The Objective Case.
All the suffixes are found joined to the end of אֵת as אֹתָם them, אֹתוֹ him, אֹתָךְ thee, אֹתִי me, אֹתהּ her, it, etc.
Note. אֶת אֵת sometimes signifies with; and in this case the [blank] has Kheerek under it; as אִתָּם with them, אִתּוֹ with him, אתָךְ אִתְךָ with thee, etc. [p. 5]
[verso of p. 5 blank]
Verbs whose first Radical is [blank]
These verbs often drop their א in the first pers. sing. future; as אֹכַל אֹכֵל I shall eat, instead of אֹאֹכַל [blank] for [blank]
When a dagesh’d נ comes before the suffixes ו him, ה her, etc. it is merely for Euphony, and adds nothing to the sense.
Note. Sometimes the Dagesh is omitted.
טֵרֶם before, and אָז then.
When these particles come before a future, they generally change the future into the past tense.
הֲ prefixed often asks a question; as [blank] whether from? [blank] is not?
הַ is prefixed, before a Shevau, a Gutteral (§ 4), or a Dagesh.
Note. Sometimes הֶ is interrogative; seldom ה
In the future tense, and in all the participles which have מ, the ה of Hiphil, Hophal and Hithpael is always omitted.
THE VERB לָקַח (he took).
This verb (like roots beginning with נ) drops its ל in the Imperative and Infinitive; and in the Infinitive it postfixes ת; as קַח take thou, לָקַחַת) קַחַת) to take.
ה ָ- suffixed to a noun of place signifies to or towards, as אַרְאָה and ה ָ- to the land. [p. 6]
[verso of p. 6 blank]
1. When the letter י comes between a suffix and a noun, it shows that the noun is plural; as אַפָּיו his nostrils; the plural ם of ים ִ- being dropped.
2. Nouns which end in ה change their ה into ת when suffixes are added to the noun; as אִשָׁה a wife, אִשְׁתּוֹ his wife.
1 A few roots are pointed with ָ and ֵ ; as יָרֵא he feared, מָלֵא he filled.
2. A very few roots are pointed with ָ and ; as יָכֹל he was able.
The Infinitive and Imperative Piel has a Pattakh ( ַ ) or Kaumets ( ָ ) under the first radical, and a Dagesh generally (but not always) in the second radical.
The following examples will show the forms of the Imperative mood of roots whose last radical is רְאֵה ;ח ה see thou, look thou, from וֶהְיֵה) הֶיֶה הֱיֵה ;רָאָה) be thou, from עֲשֵׂה הָיָה make, do thou, from עָשָׂה
Note 1. י-ִ at the end is thou fem.; וּ is ye masc.; and ןָ ,ן ,נָח נָה or ןָ is ye feminine.
Note 2. Sometimes ה is changed into י as [blank] from [blank]
The letters א ה ו י ן are frequently placed at the end of verbs, nouns, particles, etc. for euphony: for example: [blank]
1. ח ה paragogic is very common at the end of the Imperative mood; and the first pers. sing. and plural of the future; as קְחָה fetch, take thou, from קוּמָה ;לָקַח arise thou, from אֲבָרְכָה ;קוּם I will bless for נֵלְכָה ;אֲבָרֵךְ we will go, for נֵלֵךְ from יָלַךְ.
Note 1. ה paragogic never occurs in Pual or Hophal.
Note 2. It is frequently found at the end of תָ thou; as נָתַתָּה נָתַתָּח
Note 3. It occurs twice at the end of the 3rd pers. future י he shall; and twice at the end of the 2nd pers. future ת thou shalt.
2. ן paragogic is very common after וּ ye or they; but uncommon after י ִ- thou shalt fem.; as תְּמֻתוּן ye shall die from יַחְסְרוּן ;מוּת from תִּדְבָּקִין ;חָסַר thou (fem.) shalt cleave. [p. 7]
[verso of p. 7 blank]
3. ה -ִי ,וֹ paragogic are found in such forms as the following: חַיְתו a beast for יְשׁוּעָתָה ;חַיַּת deliverance, [blank] inhabiting, בְנוֹ and בְּנִי a son.
An epenthetic י is rarely found in verbs; as תּומִיךְ for תּוֹמֵךְ sustaining.
The termination יִם added to the numbers from 3 to 9 inclusive, makes ten times the number.
When יִם is added to עָשָׂר or עֶשֶׂר ten, it doubles it.
Two is expressed by שְׁנַיִם and שְׁתַּיִם.
When a root begins with one of the Sibilants (hissing letters) שׁ ס שׂ the ת characteristic of Hithpael is transposed; as הִשְׁתַּמֵּר for הִתְשַׁמֵּר
Note 1. The verb שָׁחָה (he bowed down, worshipped) becomes שַׁחַוָה in Hithpael.
Note 2. Sometimes ת of Hithpael is omitted; as הִדַּבֵּר for הִתְדַּבֵּר
Verbs ע֞ו & ע֞ע.
These verbs are formed in Piel, Pual, and Hithpael thus:
Piel קוֹמֵם Pual קוֹמַם Hithpael הִתְקומִם from קוּם; Piel סוֹבֵב Pual סוֹבַב Hithpael הּתְסובֵב הִסְּתּוֹבֵב from סָבַב.
Note 1. Some roots repeat their radicals, as כִּלְכֵּל from אֻמְלַל ;כּוּל from אָמַל etc.
Note 2. Some roots have 4 radicals; as פַּרְשֵׁז רֻטֲפשׁ ,כּרְסֵם.
1. The short Kaumets of the Infinitive and Imperative is sometimes placed under the first radical.
2. When מ is prefixed to an Infinitive, it frequently denotes not, so as not, so that not.
3. Roots ending in ת drop their ת when a sufformative ת follows it.
4. Roots ending in ן drop their ן when another נ follows it. [p. 8]
אַחַד,אֶחָת ,אַחַת אֶחָד one, first.
שְׁתֵים שְׁנֵים) שְׁתַּיִם ,שְׁנַיִם) two.
שְׁלֹשָׁה , שְׁלשׁ שָׁלשׁ three
ת , —ָה אַרְבַּע , four
חֲמִשָׁה — חָמֵשׁ five
שִׁשָׁה שֵׁשׁ, const, שֵׁשֶׁת six
שֶׁבַע —— seven,
שְׁמֹנֶה שְׁמֹנָה, eight
תֵּשַׁע —— nine
עֲשֶׂרֶת ,עֲשָׂרָה ,עֶשְׂרֵה ,עֶשֶׂר עָשָׂר ten
אֶחָד עָשָׂר eleven
Additional observations for discovering the Root.
1. It usually happens that when the Praeformative letter of a verb has the vowel Tsaree ( ֵ ) under it, the letter י (seldom ה) has been dropped; as [blank] from [blank] from [blank] [blank] from [blank]
2. When the Praeformative has a Kaumets (ָ ) under it, ו or the doubled radical has been dropped; as [blank] from [blank] from [blank]
3. When a Dagesh follows the Praeformative, נ has been dropped; (but see § 30.)
4. In other cases, the radical ה has been dropped.
Note 1. In a very few cases a Dagesh shows a [blank] dropped.
Note 2. A Dagesh in the first sometimes in the second radical frequently shows the absence of the doubled radical; as [blank] and [blank] from [blank] from [blank]
Note 3. A few verbs whose second and third radicals are alike, have a Tsaree under the Praeformative; as [blank] from [blank]
N. B. The verbs [blank] etc. come from [blank]
Note 4. Verbs beginning with [blank] [blank] or, [blank] are verbs whose first radical is [blank] See § 51.
Note 5. Some roots lose their [blank] at the beginning; and some lose their [blank] at the end; as [blank] from [blank] from [blank] from [blank] from [blank] [p. 9]
[various scribblings by ]


  1. new scribe logo

    Docket in handwriting of Amasa Lyman.  

  2. 1

    See Supplement to J. Seixas’ Hebrew Grammer, 9–27.  

  3. 2

    “§ 42” refers to a section in Joshua Seixas’s Manual Hebrew Grammar for the Use of Beginners; that section is not reproduced in the supplement or this worksheet.  

  4. 3

    TEXT: “§ 51” refers to a section in Joshua Seixas’s Manual Hebrew Grammar for the Use of Beginners; that section is not reproduced in the supplement or this worksheet.  

  5. 4

    TEXT: “§ 4” refers to a section in Joshua Seixas’s Manual Hebrew Grammar for the Use of Beginners; that section is not reproduced in the supplement or this worksheet.  

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    Printed form ends; Amasa Lyman handwriting begins.  

  7. new scribe logo

    Amasa Lyman handwriting ends; printed form resumes.  

  8. 5

    TEXT: “§ 30” refers to a section in Joshua Seixas’s Manual Hebrew Grammar for the Use of Beginners; that section is not reproduced in the supplement or this worksheet.  

  9. 6

    TEXT: “§ 51” refers to a section in Joshua Seixas’s Manual Hebrew Grammar for the Use of Beginners; that section is not reproduced in the supplement or this worksheet.