Letter from Brigham Young and Willard Richards, 5 September 1840

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

Star office. 149. oldham Road
; End.
Sept 5 1840
To the of the , viz, Joseph Smith Jun, & ,
Beloved of the Lord and of his saints;
We esteem it a great privilege to be permitted to address you on, paper, while we are far separated from you in a land of strangers, or perhaps we might say with propriety, the land of our forefathers; but be this as it may, it, is, indeed, a land of strangers to us, only so far as we have began to become acquaintd with the inhabitants, by a few months or years travels among them, The time <​of​> our acquaintance is but short at the longest, but when we contemplate our absence from our homes & kindred, & especially our from the society of those who are over us in the Lord, whose faces we delight to look upon, & whose councils we are ever glad to receive, & rejoice in following. the time seems to be prolonged; & while we remain in this situation we hope you will not think us burdensome, if we trouble you occasionally. to read our thoughts, & answer us a few questions, or many, even as many as is wisdom in God you should answer, for if we ask those which are improper, it shall be on account of our ignorance, therefore we pray you forgive us. We desire not to council you in any, but to be counseld by you, for it is the desire of our hearts to do the will of God in all things, & we feel our own weekness & insufficiency for the [p. [1]] Great work which is committed to us, & feel to place all our hope, strength, & confidence in Israel’s God, who is sufficent for all things, & not do as many who profess to love the Lord, & at the same time live in neglect of his commandments & his ordinances, & despise the order of his council & government. No, we rejoice that the has a Moses in these last days. (and an Aaron by his side,) of whom the saints may enquire, as in days of old, & know the mind of the Lord. We by no means suppose you ignorant of our situation or the situation of the people here, or of our proceedings, & yet as is common among men we suppose presume it will not be unacceptable to you to read somethi[n]g from us also, concerning the circumstances by which we are surrounded. There are some things which we expect to find common amongst men of different nations generally, such as a disposition to believe error instead of truth, & love sin instead of holiness; also, a disposition, among a few of the honest in heart to believe the truth. <​&​> rejoice in it when it is brought to within their reach; & yet, such are the attendant circumstances with which people of different nations are surrounded. & individuals of the same nations, but of different neighborhoods that they require very different treatment or address in order to induce them to receive the truth, & even then will require very different degrees of time to accomplish the same or bring <​in​>to exercise pass the same amount of faith. The man who has only read the history histories [p. 2] of the people of , which we had seen before we left , is liable to meet with some disappointments, at least, when he comes to make his introduction amongst them. This may in part be owing to the historian & traveler, for it is generally the case that what we find in history relates more particularly to the higher classes, in the nations, for , unlike , is divided into classes; many indeed, but they may all be comprised, in three, so far as we need designate at this time, (viz) Lords, Tradesmen, & Mechanics or laborers, or, in other words, the highest, middle, & lowest classes, each of which have their particuler customs, & manners but the histories, which we refer to, have more generally treated of those of the higher order, or, at least, we find an acquaintence that those histories are now more applicable to the higher <​& middle​> classes than any other. But, perhaps a part may be owing to the great changes which have taken place in the nation, within a few years, with regard to money matters, which has caused a mighty revolution, in the affairs of the common people.
A few years since, and almost every family had their garden with their house, their cow. on the common & their pig in the stye, which added greatly to the comforts of the household; but now we [p. 3] seldom find either garden. cow or Pig.
As we pass around among the country cottages & see the stone walls which are thrown down, & the but more commonly the hedges in a decaying & mutilated state, it is very natural for us to enquire what have you here? & what the cause of this destruction? & we generally get but one answer, “a few years ago I had a flourishing garden on the spot you now see, & it was surrounded with this hedge which was planted by my own hand; I had a cow of my own which fed on yonder common,— I worked labord on my masters farm, & had plenty of time, morning, and evenings, to till my garden, in which I raised sauce enough for my family, & evry year I had a good pig, & a plenty to eat, & we were happy, but our Lords & masters have become more avaricious, & are trying to get all they can themselves, & will hardly let the poor live, you see my landlord has made my garden into a meadow, & feeds his own cattle upon it; the Lord of the manner has fenced in the common, so that I had no place to keep my cow & I was obliged to sell her; I I killed my pig to prevent its starving. The small farmes are united & made into large ones, so we could get nothing to do on the land, I have been oblige to go into the factory, with my wife & children, to get a morsel of bread;” “or, “I have taken to hand-loom weaving, to keep my wife & little one from starvation.” [p. 4]
By this brief sketch you will easily discover that the histories, which we refer to, were much more applicable for <​to​> the times concerning the times for which they were written, than for the present time, so that it is no wonder foreigners should be disappointed in visiting at the present time, who may not have seen some very recent histories. It cannot be expected that we should give any thing like a history of all the changes in Old , in one brief communication, & that in the midst of much confusion, arising from the preparation for the departure of the brethren, the getting up of the Star &c, &c,— which is now crowding us, but you will see at a glance that the few changes we have hinted at would prove only as the cause of a multitude of effects,
Manufacturing is the business of . The cotton mills are the most numerous, the weavers will get from 6 to 12 10 shillings per week, the spinners something more. The hand-loom weavers have to work hard to get 6 shillings per week. Now after paying 2 or 3 shillings rent per week— 1 shilling for coal, <​beside​> taxes of every kind, we might say, for smoke must not go up chimney in without a tax, Light must not come in at the window without paying duties, homes many must pay from 1 penny to 6 pence per week for water, & if we should attempt to tell all we should want a government list, after paying all taxes what think you will a family have left for bread stuff? [p. 5]
Add to this the tax for bread <​on corn​>, which is a great share of the expence of the article, & what is left but starvation, leaving out of account all seasonings, such as Peppers, Spices, &c which by taxation is four times the value it is in the — so you may well suppose that the poor are not troubld much with these things.— The poor are not able to keep dogs, & if they were they would have to pay from 8 shilling to 1 £ per head per annum, tax. There are taxes for living, & taxes for dying, inasmuch that it is very difficult for the poor to get buried any how, & a man may emigrate to & find a grave, for less money, than he can get a decent burial <​for​> in old .— We scarce recollect an article without tax but <​except​> cats & mice & fleas.
After what we have written we scarce need tell you that is filled with beggars. They call at our doors, from 1/2 a Dozen to a Dozen per day. If we go in the streets they gather round us and it is hard to get rid of them without a penny, indeed, we do not try, so long as we can get a penny by buying or begging, for we remember that the measure we meet shall be measured to us again.
Where a people <​Hunger & Rags are no curiosity here, & while​> things remain as they are what can we expect but theft, robery, murder which now fill the land.— Leaving out of the account, both as cause & effect the drunkeness & gambling, & swearing & debauchery— which are common on every hand?— [p. 6]
It will readily be discoverd that the people have enough to do, to keep from dying with hunger without, without taking much thought for the improve[me]nt of the mind. Many of the people cannot read, & a great many cannot write, children are admitted into the factories at 8 years old, working a part of the day & attending school a part till they are 14 years old, & then work continually, though as yet we have been able to discover but very little benefit from the factory school, it is by Parliament compulsion on the part of the masters, & not of free will, of course the easier get over the better, the cheaper the master, the more money remains in pocket
A few years since, they <​the spinners & weavers​> had “Turn outs” (as they now sometimes have in .) when their masters displeased them.— but trade is now so dull, the masters care little for their manafactu[r]ers, & have reduced their <​workmens​> wages to, almost, the lowest extremity, & if their hands should turn out, they for more wages, they have nothi[n]g before them but, destruction for there thousands & tens of thousands who cannot get one days work in a month, or six months, so they continue to labor 12 hour in a day for almost nothing rather than starve at once. Their miserable pittance is mostly oatmeal & water boiled together, & they would be quite conten[t]ed if they could get enough of that, with sometimes a little Treacle, which is blood & molasses, or a little rancid butter, or skim milk made of whiting & water to a great extent if we mistake not, although they have to give from 3 to 4 pense, per quart, for it.— Buttermilk is also a great treat to the poor people and is easily increased in quantity, by whiting & water.— There is no scheme which can be devised left unimproved, to grind the face of the poor & <​& the sta◊◊◊◊◊◊t◊◊​> we feel that the time has nearly come for the words of James to be fulfilled go to now ye rich men weep & howl for the miseries which are come upon you &c [p. 7] Much has been said in history, & story of the learning & neatness of the English people, of the latter subject we have neither time nor disposition to say much, although we are not short of matter, but of the former how can it be but simply ask how can it be expected that neatness, should be a very prominent trait in the habits of a people who are obliged to improve eve[r]y moment, to get a morsel of bread?— And as to learning such a thing as a news-paper is scarcely to be found among the common people, & if it was it would only the English papers are filled with little else than “cold blooded murder”, “Horrid Tragedies” “Roberies” “Thefts” “Fires” “Notice of the Quens [Queen’s] Dinner” or Prince Alberts Ride out.” or visit to the Theatre,” or Rail Road accidnt,” “&c, <​Hunting excursions— excursion​> &c, &c, which is calculatd to harden the heart & prepare it for far still greater wickednss. Such is the poverty of the people that but few of the can afford to take the Star we are publishi[n]g once a month, price 6 pence
Neither have the priests much more information than the people, indeed there are many of the common people whom they dare not meet in argume[n]t, although they have their livings, thousands upon thousands, & some of them own whole townsh[i]ps or parishes, & will tell their Parishioners <​& tenants​> if th[e]y allow any one to preach in their houses they will be turnd out of doors, or if they are they will face no better, & thus may simple souls who believe our message dare not be baptizd, because they have not faith to sufficient, to screen them from the threats of an insolent priest, <​or factory master​> knowing they will worry them to the utmost if they displease him, our hearts mourn for such. It is apparently, starvation on one hand, & damnation on the other. The Lord have mercy upon them.— Amen. [p. 8]
We find the people of this land, much more ready to receive the gospel, than those of , so far as th[e]y do receive it, for th[e]y have not that speculitive inteligenc, or prejudice, or prepossession, or false learning, call it what you please, which they have there, consequntly we have not to labor with a people month after month to break down their old notions, for their Pri[e]sts have taught them but little, & much of that is so foolish as to be rebuted at a glance, viewing the subje[c]t in this light we find ignorance a blessing, for the more ignorant of false notions the more readily they receive truth. The greatest opposition we meet with is from the Methodist, The Chu[r]ch of England would fain make themselvs believe they are on the rock and cannot be shaken, therefore th[e]y trouble themselves little about these things, as yet, the more is to come.
Thus while we have not the Learning and prejudice of the people to contend against as in we have the influence of the <​monied​> monopolizing Pri[e]sts & factory Master, & yet after all their influence, those who have receivd the word have <​generally​> received it very readily & the trouble of keeping up “church discipline here has been small compared with our native country. but how, those who receive the word so readily will stand in the day of trial remains yet to be proved, as there has been nothing in this land as yet which need try the faith of any one. but of this we confidntly hope that many have already received the word which will endure unto the end.— [p. 9]
we have many things we would gladly say to you did time permit, & were we not afraid of wearyi[n]g your patience, but, brethren, bear with us a little further, we beseech of you, for we want to tell you a little of what we have done, & ask a few question, & for your patience you shall have our feeble prayers that our heavenly father will multiply his blessings unto you.
According to council we have gatherd from different parts of & Scotland, more than 600 of the <​a company of the​> Breth[re]n, most of whom are very poor <​and sisters​> who are now in ready to sail for on Mo[n]day next. Most of them are very poor; Those who had money have given most of it to help those who had none need, but as this was not sufficient; we, seeing the poverty & distress of some families, have made use of our own credit, <​among the brothers​> to carry them along with the rest, It was the decision of the council in July that should lead this company to , & he goes accordingly.—
Brethren, our hearts are pained with the poverty & misery of this people. & we have done all we could to help as many off as possible, to a land where th[e]y may get a morsel of bread, & serve God according to his appontmt [appointment]; & we have done it cheerfully as unto the Lord, & we desire to ask you have we done right? Or is it <​a​> right principle, for us to act upon, to involve ourselves, to help the Lords poor <​saints​> to Zion?
We have heard by the bye that Brothers Joseph & are coming to next season. Is this good news true? May we look for you? [p. 10]
Shall we gather up all the we can & come over <​with them​> next Spring?
Have we done right in Printing a hymn book?
Are we doing right in Printing the book of Morm[o]n?
Are we doing right in staying here to leave & leaving our families to be a bu[r]den to the ?
We have sent <​some of​> our paper to , is this Right?
When the Book of Mormon is completed, will it be best for any one to carry any of th[e]m to ?
Shall we print the doctrins & Covenats [Doctrine and Covenants] here or not? or will the D. & C. be printed & go to the nations, as it now is or not? or will it be revised & pr[i]nted for the nation?
Shall we send all we can to next season & stay here ourselves?
What is the Lords will concerning ? Shall he take his family to next season? or shall he tary here with them awhile longer? what shall he do?—
We have lately visited a museum, where we saw an E[gyptian] Mummy, on the head stone &c are many ancient <​& curious​> characters, & we asked the privilege of copyi[n]g them for translation but have not receivd an answer, yet,
Shall we copy them & send them to you for ?
Finally, Brethren, how long must we be deprived the company of our Dear Bethn [brethren] whom we Love, for this works sake, & we feel that it is our privilge to love those who are willi[n]g to lay down the[i]r lives for the Brethrn [p. 11]
We need not say we send our love to you for that is always with you. should you Doubt it time & works must declare it. We hope you will favor us with a letter, for we exceedingly desire council in these matters, & all others, which the Lord may have in store for us.—
We would rejoice to see you in this , & although your hearts would be piercd with the poverty & wretchedness that prevails,— you would see many thi[n]gs which would intere[s]t you, <​such as​> the ancie[n]t & curious workmanship of the churches, cathedrals, monumnts &c which have stood, some of th[e]m a 1000 ye[a]rs or more & are now in a good state of preservati[o]n.—
We remember the observati[o]n of Bro Joseph, “that we should hardly get ov[e]r th[e] nation before th[e] judgm[en]ts of God would overtake the people,” & we fully believe. it & are trying to do what we can to send forth th[e] Gospel, one of our has gone to South Australia. One to the East Indies, & we expct one to start for Hamburgh <​in Holl[a]nd​> this week.— We want council & wisdom, & any thing that is good & it is Our motto is go ahead. go ahead.— & ahead we are determ[ine]d to go— untill we have conque[re]d evry foe, so come life or <​come​> death we’ll go ahead, but tell us if we are going wrong, & we will right it.—
Your Breth[re]n in the
[p. 12]
To Joseph Smith Junr & others
By or } [p. [13]]
[page [14] blank] [p. [14]]


  1. 1

    The Millennial Star was published at the British mission headquarters. (Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 1:394n8.)  

    Crawley, Peter. A Descriptive Bibliography of the Mormon Church. 3 vols. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1997–2012.

  2. 2

    Though Young had only been in England for five months, he had parted from his family in Montrose, Iowa Territory, on 14 September 1839—nearly a year before writing this letter. (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 26.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

  3. 3

    See Exodus 4:10–16. In this letter, Young and Richards were equating JS with Moses and Rigdon with Aaron. An 1831 revelation stated that the president of the church would “be like unto Moses.” Just as Aaron was designated as a spokesman for Moses, Rigdon was appointed to be a “spokesman unto my servant Joseph” by an 1833 revelation. (Revelation, 11 Nov. 1831–B [D&C 107:91]; Revelation, 12 Oct. 1833 [D&C 100:9].)  

  4. 4

    Many of JS’s revelations responded to questions or requests for instruction from individual church members or groups of members. (See, for example, Revelation, June 1829–C [D&C 15]; Revelation, Sept. 1830–B [D&C 28]; Revelation, 8 June 1831 [D&C 53]; and Revelation, 1 Nov. 1831–A [D&C 68].)  

  5. 5

    While it is unclear to which specific histories of England Young and Richards referred, the histories likely included books such as Goldsmith’s Abridged History of England (Derby, England: Henry Mozley, 1834) and Alexander Tytler, Plan and Outlines of a Course of Lectures on Universal History (Edinburgh: William Creech, 1782). Copies of both books were owned by church members in Nauvoo and were later donated to the Nauvoo Library and Literary Institute. (Nauvoo Library and Literary Institute Record, [27]–[29], [31]–[32].)  

    Nauvoo Library and Literary Institute Record, Jan.–June 1844. CHL. MS 3431.

  6. 6

    In New England (where both Young and Richards were born), the word sauce referred to culinary vegetables, roots, and fruits, whether fresh or preserved. (“Sauce,” in American Dictionary [1845], 723; “Sauce,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 9:128.)  

    An American Dictionary of the English Language; Exhibiting the Origin, Orthography, Pronunciation, and Definitions of Words. Edited by Noah Webster. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1845.

    Oxford English Dictionary. Compact ed. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

  7. 7

    A reference to the group of approximately two hundred Saints who would depart for the United States the following week; this group is discussed in greater detail later in the letter.  

  8. 8

    The “corn laws” introduced in Britain in 1815 placed heavy tariffs and restrictions on imported grain, particularly wheat. The result favored British farmers, as intended, but made costs of grain prohibitive during times of insufficient supply.  

  9. 9

    See Matthew 7:2.  

  10. 10

    Passed by Parliament in 1833, the Factory Act attempted to improve working conditions for children in factories. Among other terms, the act stipulated that no children under the age of nine could work in factories and that those aged nine to thirteen could not work more than nine hours per day. Additionally, children under fourteen years old could be employed in factories only if they had a schoolmaster’s certificate stating that they had received two hours of education per day during the previous week. (An Act to Regulate the Labour of Children and Young Persons in the Mills and Factories of the United Kingdom [29 Aug. 1833], Collection of the Public General Statutes, chap. 103, pp. 1065, 1069, secs. 7–8, 21.)  

    A Collection of the Public General Statutes Passed in the Third and Fourth Year of the Reign of His Majesty King William the Fourth, 1833. London: George Eyre and Andrew Spottiswoode, 1833.

  11. 11

    A primarily British term for a labor strike. (“Turn-out,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 11:501.)  

    Oxford English Dictionary. Compact ed. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

  12. 12

    See James 5:1.  

  13. 13

    Albert, Prince Consort, the husband of Queen Victoria.  

  14. 14

    Although individual members and convert families had emigrated from England earlier and a smaller group of Saints led by John Moon had departed Liverpool for the United States on 6 June 1840, the group led by Turley was the first church-organized company of Saints to arrive in Nauvoo. The Turley company—which numbered 201 men, women, and children—departed from Liverpool on 8 September 1840. (Clayton, Diary, 7–9 Sept. 1840; Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 40; William Clayton, Penwortham, England, to Brigham Young and Willard Richards, Manchester, England, 19 Aug. 1840, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.)  

    Clayton, William. Diary, Jan.–Dec. 1847. CHL.

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  15. 15

    JS did not directly respond to the question of whether the Saints in general should be gathered and emigrate the following spring, but he recommended to the Twelve—except Parley P. Pratt, should he choose to remain in England—that “it would be wisdom in you to make preparations to leave the scene of your labors in the spring. Having carried the testimony to that land, and numbers having received it, consequently the leaven can now spread, without your being obliged to stay.” (Letter to Quorum of the Twelve, 15 Dec. 1840.)  

  16. 16

    Young had earlier written to JS to ask whether the Twelve were authorized to publish a hymnal in England. JS responded affirmatively in a 19 July 1840 letter, but Young had not yet received the response. An April 1840 conference of the church in Nauvoo recommended that a new hymnal, among other publications, be compiled and printed. On 20 May 1840, apostles Young, Richards, and Wilford Woodruff decided that Young should obtain a contract to print, in England, three thousand copies each of a new hymnal and the Book of Mormon. The new hymnal was published in Manchester by W. R. Thomas, printer of the Millennial Star. (Letter from Brigham Young, 29 Apr. 1840; Letter from Brigham Young, 7 May 1840; Note, in JS Letterbook 2, p. 153; JS History, vol. C-1, 1119; Lorenzo Snow, London, England, to “E. McConougley,” [1841], in Snow, Letterbook, [15]; “From England,” Times and Seasons, June 1840, 1:120–121; Woodruff, Journal, 20 May 1840; John Taylor, Liverpool, England, to Brigham Young, Manchester, England, 18 June 1840, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL; Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 1:121–124.)  

    Snow, Lorenzo. Letterbook, ca. 1839–1846. CHL.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

    Crawley, Peter. A Descriptive Bibliography of the Mormon Church. 3 vols. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1997–2012.

  17. 17

    In June 1840, Young contracted with Liverpool printer John Tompkins to produce five thousand copies of a new edition of the Book of Mormon, based on the 1837 United States edition. The first copies were available in early 1841. (John Tompkins, Estimate, 7 June 1840; John Taylor, Liverpool, England, to Brigham Young, Manchester, England, 18 June 1840, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL; Brigham Young, Manchester, England, to Willard Richards, Ledbury, England, 17 June 1840, Willard Richards, Journals and Papers, CHL; Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 1:148–151.)  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

    Richards, Willard. Journals and Papers, 1821–1854. CHL.

    Crawley, Peter. A Descriptive Bibliography of the Mormon Church. 3 vols. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1997–2012.

  18. 18

    Almost a decade earlier, JS had taught that the church was obligated to “provide for the families of the absent Elders while proclaiming the Gospel.” At the time Young and Richards wrote this letter, many of the Saints, including Young’s family and the families of other members of the Quorum of the Twelve, were in destitute circumstances. (Minutes, 25–26 Oct. 1831; Pay Order to Newel K. Whitney for “Mrs. Young,” 15 June 1840.)  

  19. 19

    That is, the Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star.  

  20. 20

    Young wrote to JS on 7 May 1840 to ask whether the Doctrine and Covenants should be printed in England. At a 16 April meeting of the Quorum of the Twelve in Preston, England, Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Parley P. Pratt were appointed as a committee to secure a British copyright for the Doctrine and Covenants. JS responded affirmatively on 19 July, but the Twelve had not yet received that letter. (Letter from Brigham Young, 7 May 1840; Note, in JS Letterbook 2, p. 153; see also Letter to Quorum of the Twelve, 15 Dec. 1840; and Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 1:304–305.)  

    Crawley, Peter. A Descriptive Bibliography of the Mormon Church. 3 vols. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1997–2012.

  21. 21

    Having already addressed the question of whether the Twelve, in general, should return to Nauvoo the following spring, JS responded to the question about Richards: “Brother Richards’ question respecting arriving in the spring is answered I shall be very happy to see him & his family.” (Letter to Quorum of the Twelve, 15 Dec. 1840.)  

  22. 22

    JS acquired four mummies and some rolls of papyrus in 1835 and worked on a translation of the papyri around that time. More recently, in a memorial to the Nauvoo high council in June 1840, JS had stated his intention to “commence the work of translating the Ejyptian Records.” (JS History, vol. B-1, 595–596; Memorial to Nauvoo High Council, 18 June 1840.)  

  23. 23

    Young expressed similar sentiments in letters to JS on 29 April and 7 May 1840, writing, “I would like to be with my old friends” and “I long to see the faces of my friends again in that Country once more.” (Letter from Brigham Young, 29 Apr. 1840; Letter from Brigham Young, 7 May 1840.)  

  24. 24

    In July 1840, George A. Smith ordained William Barratt to serve a mission to South Australia. (“News from the Elders,” Times and Seasons, 1 Dec. 1840, 2:228.)  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  25. 25

    Young and Parley P. Pratt ordained William Donaldson an elder in June 1840 and assigned him to serve a mission to the East Indies. (Woodruff, Journal, Note after entry for 6 July 1840; “News from the Elders,” Times and Seasons, 1 Dec. 1840, 2:229.)  

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  26. 26

    The insertion “in Holland” is an error, as Hamburg was never within the borders of Holland or any of the Netherlands (often referred to by their chief province) but was one of thirty-nine sovereign states in the German Confederation at this time.