Phrenology Chart, 14 January 1840–B

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

DEVELOPMENTS OF
Mr. Joseph Smith jr’s
HEAD.
<​Alimentivenes[s]​> <​9​>
Destructiveness, - - 11
Amativeness, - - - 16
Philoprogenitiveness, 16
Adhesiveness, - - - 15
<​Inhabitivenes[s]​> <​15​>
Concentrativeness, 13
Combativeness, - - - 12
Secretiveness, - - - 10
Acquisitiveness, - - 12
Constructiveness, - - 14
Cautiousness, - - - 13
Approbativeness, - - 15
Autotimetiveness, - - 17
Benevolence, - - - 16
Veneration, - - - 16
Firmness, - - - - - 18
Conscientiousness, - 15
Hope, - - - - - - 14
Marvellousness, - - 14
Ideality, - - - - - 10
Mirthfulness, - - - 15
Imitation, - - - - 12
<​Sublimity​> <​11​>
Individuality, - - - 19
Configuration, - - - 17
Size, - - - - - - 18
Weight, - - - - - 12
Coloring, - - - - 15
Locality, - - - - 18
Order, - - - - - 9
Number, - - - - - 13
Eventuality, - - - 18
Time, - - - - - - 16
Tune, - - - - - - 12
Language, - - - - 15
Comparison, - - - - 12
Causality, - - - - 15
’S Office,
No. 325 Race Street. .
[William] Geddes, printer, 112 Ches[t]nut st. [p. [1]]
[page [2] blank] [p. [2]]

Footnotes

  1. 1

    “Alimentiveness” was defined as “appetite for sustenance” or “desire for nutrition.” The insertion of this term and other terms herein suggests Woodward prepared his printed charts using the terminology of one phrenological system and then supplied additional terms either to conform with a new phrenological system or in an effort to combine multiple systems. (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 86.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  2. 2

    “Destructiveness” was defined as the “propensity to destroy, exterminate, and inflict pain.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 82.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  3. 3

    “Amativeness” was defined as “reciprocal attachment and love of the sexes.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 56.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  4. 4

    “Philoprogenitiveness” was defined as “parental affection and tenderness—love of offspring, and of children generally—fondness for pets, especially young animals, and for the infirm and helpless.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 61.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  5. 5

    “Adhesiveness” was defined as “susceptibility of attachment—propensity to associate—fondness for society—inclination to love, and desire to be loved.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 64.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  6. 6

    “Inhabitiveness” was defined as “love of home and country—desire to locate and remain in one spot—attachment to the place in which one has lived.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 68.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  7. 7

    “Concentrativeness” was defined as “the power of mental concentration and continuity.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 70.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  8. 8

    “Combativeness” was defined as the “propensity to defend, resist, and oppose.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 75.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  9. 9

    “Secretiveness” was defined as the “propensity and ability to secrete, to conceal, and to suppress the expression of the other mental operations.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 96.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  10. 10

    “Acquisitiveness” was defined as the “propensity to acquire substance, and to appropriate it to one’s self—love of property—desire to amass wealth, lay up, own, possess, keep, &c.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 89.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  11. 11

    “Constructiveness” was defined as “mechanical ingenuity and talent—ability to make, build, construct, and manufacture.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 160.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  12. 12

    “Cautiousness” was defined as “solicitude about consequences—apprehension of danger—instinct of fear—care—anxiety.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 103.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  13. 13

    “Approbativeness” was defined as “love of the approbation of men—sense of character—desire for the favourable estimation, and the good opinion, of others—ambition for distinction and popularity—love of fame, &c.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 107.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  14. 14

    There is no description of “Autotimetiveness” in Fowler’s phrenological guides. It is likely, however, that this trait is what Fowler termed “Self-esteem”: “Self-respect—self confidence—self complacency and satisfaction—high-mindedness—independence—nobleness—love of liberty and freedom.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 113.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  15. 15

    “Benevolence” was defined as the “desire for the happiness of others—sympathy, compassion—kindness, fellow-feeling, benignity.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 153.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  16. 16

    “Veneration” was defined as “sentiment of adoration and worship for the Supreme Being—reverence for what is considered above us—respect for superiority, &c.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 147.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  17. 17

    “Firmness” was defined as “stability—decision of character—fixedness of purpose—desire to continue—aversion to change.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 119.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  18. 18

    “Conscientiousness” was defined as “moral principle—sense of justice—regard for duty—feeling of moral accountability, incumbency, and obligation—perception of the right and the wrong of feelings and conduct.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 124.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  19. 19

    “Hope” was defined as “expectation—anticipation—tendency of mind to contemplate the future with bright expectations of happiness and success.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 136.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  20. 20

    “Marvellousness” was defined as “wonder—credulity—disposition to believe what is not proved, or what are considered supernatural manifestations, &c.—to regard with wonder and astonishment that which is somewhat strange or singular.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 141.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  21. 21

    “Ideality” was defined as “imagination—fancy—love of the exquisite, the beautiful, the splendid, the tasteful, and the polished—that impassioned ecstacy and rapture of feeling which give inspiration to poetry and oratory, and a conception of the sublime.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 165.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  22. 22

    “Mirthfulness” was defined as “that faculty of the mind which looks at things through a ludicrous medium, and thus forms humorous ideas and conceptions—a quick and lively perception of the ridiculous and the absurd—facetiousness, pleasantry, humour, wit, fun.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 172.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  23. 23

    “Imitation” was defined as the “ability to represent, copy, describe, and do what we see done—the power of imitation and copying in general.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 169.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  24. 24

    “Sublimity” was defined as “conception of grandeur; sublime emotions excited by contemplating the vast, magnificent, or splendid in nature of art.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 48.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  25. 25

    “Individuality” was defined as “power of noticing single objects as separate existences, and of considering each as a distinct identity and individuality—desire to see and know, and to examine objects—curiosity to see things—power of observation.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 183.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  26. 26

    “Configuration” was related to the phrenological characteristic labeled “form,” which was defined as “that mental power which takes cognizance of the shape or configuration of objects, and recollects them.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 186.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  27. 27

    “Size” was defined as “that mental power which takes cognizance of magnitude and proportion—ability to judge of length, breadth, height, depth, distance, &c.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 190.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  28. 28

    “Weight” was defined as “intuitive perception and application of the principles of specifick gravity—ability to judge of the force and resistance of bodies, and of equilibrium—to preserve the centre of gravity.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 192.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  29. 29

    “Colour” was defined as the “ability to perceive and recollect the various colours of objects, to compare them, and judge of the harmony or discord of their different shades when mingled.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 195.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  30. 30

    “Locality” was defined as “cognizance of the relative position of objects—recollection of the looks of places—knowledge of the geographical position of things, the points of the compass, &c.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 205.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  31. 31

    “Order” was defined as “system—sense of physical arrangement—desire to have things in their places.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 198.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  32. 32

    Fowler instead called this “calculation,” which he defined as “intuitive perception of the relations of numbers and proportions—ability to reckon figures in the head—numerical computation—numeration—mental arithmetic.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 202.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  33. 33

    “Eventuality” was defined as “memory of events—power of calling to mind those circumstances, occurrences, incidents, historical facts, &c., which have previously come to the knowledge of the individual.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 209.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  34. 34

    “Time” was defined as “cognizance of succession—that mental power which notices and recollects the lapse of time, and the relative distance of time, and order of succession, in which events transpire.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 214.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  35. 35

    “Tune” was defined as “sense of melody and harmony of sounds—ability to learn tunes and detect discords.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 217.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  36. 36

    “Language” was defined as the “power of communicating ideas by means of particular signs—memory of words—recollection of arbitrary signs as expressive of ideas.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 222.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  37. 37

    “Comparison” was defined as the “disposition and ability to compare various things for the purpose of ascertaining their points of resemblance and of difference—power of classification—perception and application of the principles of analogy—ability to discover truths that are unknown, by discerning their resemblance to those that are already ascertained, and also errour from its incongruity with truth—power of illustration—critical acumen.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 239.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.

  38. 38

    “Causality” was defined as the “power of perceiving and applying the principles of causation—ability to discover, and trace out, the connexion and relations existing between causes and effects; to plan, invent, and adapt means to ends; to draw conclusions from given premises; to reason—disposition to investigate, and ask, why?—key-stone of common-sense.” (Fowler and Fowler, Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, 231.)  

    Fowler, O. S., and L. N. Fowler. Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied, Accompanied by a Chart; Embracing an Analysis of the Primary, Mental Powers in Their Various Degrees of Development, the Phenomena Produced by Their Combined Activity and the Location of the Phrenological Organs in the Head: Together with a View of the Moral and Theological Bearing of the Science. 9th ed. Philadelphia: O. S. Fowler, 1840.