30734

Minutes, 11 September 1833

Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
11 Sept 1833—
This day the following members of— of the United firm

An organization that supervised the management of church enterprises and properties from 1832 to 1834. In March and April 1832, revelations directed that the church’s publishing and mercantile endeavors be organized. In accordance with this direction, the...

View Glossary
residing in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
to wit Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
. Joseph Smith J Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

View Full Bio
and Newel K Whitney

3/5 Feb. 1795–23 Sept. 1850. Trader, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Samuel Whitney and Susanna Kimball. Moved to Fairfield, Herkimer Co., New York, 1803. Merchant at Plattsburg, Clinton Co., New York, 1814. Mercantile clerk for...

View Full Bio
, and also Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
delegate to represent the residue of the said firm residing in Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

More Info
Jackson County Missouri1

Members of the Kirtland branch of the firm who were not at the council were Martin Harris and John Johnson. Members of the Missouri branch were Cowdery, Edward Partridge, Sidney Gilbert, John Whitmer, and William W. Phelps. (Revelation, 26 Apr. 1832 [D&C 82:11–12]; Revelation, 4 June 1833 [D&C 96:6–8].)  


meet in councel

A gathering of church leaders assembled “for consultation, deliberation and advice”; also a body responsible for governance or administration. As early as 9 February 1831, a revelation instructed that “the Elders & Bishop shall Council together & they shall...

View Glossary
to take into consideration the expediency of establishing a printing press in this place
First Resolved by unanimous consent that a press be established and conductd under the firm of F G.W & Co

A firm established by the United Firm on 11 September 1833 to print newspapers in Kirtland, Ohio. In December 1833, F. G. Williams & Co. resumed the interrupted printing of the church newspaper The Evening and the Morning Star. After the United Firm was reorganized...

View Glossary
2

F. G. Williams & Co. was apparently in operation by October 1833, when the first entries were made in the company’s ledger book. Newel K. Whitney appears to have supplied the necessary money for the firm to begin business, and the company evidently consisted of just Frederick G. Williams and Oliver Cowdery. (F. G. Williams and Company, Account Book, 1; Revelation, 23 Apr. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 98:5, 1835 ed. [D&C 104:29].)  


Seccondly Resolved that the above firm publish a paper as soon as arangments can be made entitled The Latter day Saints messenger and advocate3

Oliver Cowdery later explained, “As the name of this church has lately been entitled the church of the Latter Day Saints, and since it is destined, at least for a season, to bear the reproach and stigma of this world, it is no more than just, that a paper disseminating the doctrines believed by the same, and advocating its character and rights, should be entitled ‘messenger and advocate.’” On 3 May 1834, perhaps to distinguish the Church of Christ from the other churches with similar names in Ohio, a conference in Kirtland passed a resolution changing the name of the church to “The Church of the Latter Day Saints.” (Oliver Cowdery, “Address to the Patrons of the Evening and the Morning Star,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 185, emphasis in original; “Communicated,” The Evening and the Morning Star, May 1834, 160.)  


Resolved also that the Star formerly published in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
Missouri by the firm of W W, Phelps & Co

The corporate name of the church’s printing establishment in Independence, Missouri. The company included church printer William W. Phelps and likely John Whitmer and Oliver Cowdery, who were appointed by the Literary Firm to assist Phelps in reviewing and...

View Glossary
— be printed in this place by the firm of F.G, Williams & Co to be conducted by Oliver Cowdry

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
one of the said firm untill it is transfered to its former Location——
F. G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
[p. 24]
Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
11 Sept 1833—
This day the following members of—  of the United firm

An organization that supervised the management of church enterprises and properties from 1832 to 1834. In March and April 1832, revelations directed that the church’s publishing and mercantile endeavors be organized. In accordance with this direction, the...

View Glossary
residing in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
 to wit F[rederick] G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
. Joseph Smith J Sidney  Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

View Full Bio
and N[ewel] K Whitney

3/5 Feb. 1795–23 Sept. 1850. Trader, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Samuel Whitney and Susanna Kimball. Moved to Fairfield, Herkimer Co., New York, 1803. Merchant at Plattsburg, Clinton Co., New York, 1814. Mercantile clerk for...

View Full Bio
, and also  Oliver Cowd[e]ry

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
delegate to represent the  residue of the said firm residing in  Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

More Info
Jackson County Missouri1

Members of the Kirtland branch of the firm who were not at the council were Martin Harris and John Johnson. Members of the Missouri branch were Cowdery, Edward Partridge, Sidney Gilbert, John Whitmer, and William W. Phelps. (Revelation, 26 Apr. 1832 [D&C 82:11–12]; Revelation, 4 June 1833 [D&C 96:6–8].)  


 meet in councel

A gathering of church leaders assembled “for consultation, deliberation and advice”; also a body responsible for governance or administration. As early as 9 February 1831, a revelation instructed that “the Elders & Bishop shall Council together & they shall...

View Glossary
to tak[e] into consideration  the expediency of establishing a printing  press in this place
First Resolved that by unanimous consent  that a press be established and conductd  under the firm of F G.W & Co

A firm established by the United Firm on 11 September 1833 to print newspapers in Kirtland, Ohio. In December 1833, F. G. Williams & Co. resumed the interrupted printing of the church newspaper The Evening and the Morning Star. After the United Firm was reorganized...

View Glossary
2

F. G. Williams & Co. was apparently in operation by October 1833, when the first entries were made in the company’s ledger book. Newel K. Whitney appears to have supplied the necessary money for the firm to begin business, and the company evidently consisted of just Frederick G. Williams and Oliver Cowdery. (F. G. Williams and Company, Account Book, 1; Revelation, 23 Apr. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 98:5, 1835 ed. [D&C 104:29].)  


Seccondly Resolved that the above firm  publish a paper as soon as arangments  can be made entitled The Latter day  Saints messenger and advocate3

Oliver Cowdery later explained, “As the name of this church has lately been entitled the church of the Latter Day Saints, and since it is destined, at least for a season, to bear the reproach and stigma of this world, it is no more than just, that a paper disseminating the doctrines believed by the same, and advocating its character and rights, should be entitled ‘messenger and advocate.’” On 3 May 1834, perhaps to distinguish the Church of Christ from the other churches with similar names in Ohio, a conference in Kirtland passed a resolution changing the name of the church to “The Church of the Latter Day Saints.” (Oliver Cowdery, “Address to the Patrons of the Evening and the Morning Star,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 185, emphasis in original; “Communicated,” The Evening and the Morning Star, May 1834, 160.)  


Resolved also that the Star formerly  published in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
Missouri  by the firm of W W, Phelps & Co

The corporate name of the church’s printing establishment in Independence, Missouri. The company included church printer William W. Phelps and likely John Whitmer and Oliver Cowdery, who were appointed by the Literary Firm to assist Phelps in reviewing and...

View Glossary
— be  printed in this place by the firm of  F.G, Williams & Co to be conducted by  Oliver Cowdry

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
one of the said firm  untill it is transfered to its forme[r]  Location——
F. G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
[p. 24]
Members of the branch of the United Firm

An organization that supervised the management of church enterprises and properties from 1832 to 1834. In March and April 1832, revelations directed that the church’s publishing and mercantile endeavors be organized. In accordance with this direction, the...

View Glossary
in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
, Ohio, met with Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
, a member of the Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
branch of the firm, on 11 September 1833 to “take into consideration the expediency of establishing a printing press” in Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
. Before this time, most of the church’s printing operations took place in Missouri. In July 1831, a revelation appointed William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

View Full Bio
“a Printer unto the Church” and directed him and his family to “be planted in the Land of Zion

JS revelation, dated 20 July 1831, designated Missouri as “land of promise” for gathering of Saints and place for “city of Zion,” with Independence area as “center place” of Zion. Latter-day Saint settlements elsewhere, such as in Kirtland, Ohio, became known...

More Info
as speedily as can be.” Cowdery was to assist Phelps in the printing operation.1

Revelation, 20 July 1831 [D&C 57:11, 13–14].  


Phelps spent the next few months purchasing equipment for a printing office

JS revelations, dated 20 July and 1 Aug. 1831, directed establishment of LDS church’s first printing office in Independence, Missouri. Dedicated by Bishop Edward Partridge, 29 May 1832. Located on Lot 76, on Liberty Street just south of courthouse square....

More Info
and moving to Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

More Info
, Jackson County, Missouri.2

Edward Partridge, Independence, MO, to Lydia Clisbee Partridge, 5–7 Aug. 1831, Edward Partridge, Letters, 1831–1835, CHL; JS History, vol. A-1, 154.  


In Independence, Phelps—as part of a corporate entity called W. W. Phelps & Co.

The corporate name of the church’s printing establishment in Independence, Missouri. The company included church printer William W. Phelps and likely John Whitmer and Oliver Cowdery, who were appointed by the Literary Firm to assist Phelps in reviewing and...

View Glossary
, which likely consisted of him, Cowdery, and John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

View Full Bio
—was responsible for publishing a monthly church newspaper called The Evening and the Morning Star, as well as a weekly newspaper of more general interest called the Upper Missouri Advertiser.3

Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 1:32–35; JS History, vol. A-1, 154.  


Phelps was also directed to publish JS’s revelations in a compilation titled the Book of Commandments.4 These endeavors were halted in July 1833 when non-Mormon settlers, upset in part by an editorial Phelps had published in the Star that they believed encouraged free blacks to migrate to Missouri,5

“Free People of Color,” The Evening and the Morning Star, July 1833, 109; Letter from John Whitmer, 29 July 1833.  


formed a mob and destroyed the printing office in Independence, throwing the press out the second-story window and scattering the type in the street. To appease their assailants, church leaders signed an agreement that stated, among other things, that The Evening and the Morning Star would not “be published nor a press set up by any” church members in the county. In the agreement, church members also promised that they would leave Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
—half of them by 1 January 1834 and the other half by 1 April 1834. The signing of this agreement and the destruction of the printing office left church leaders in Missouri wondering about the future of the church’s printing operations.6

“To His Excellency, Daniel Dunklin,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 114–115; Letter from John Whitmer, 29 July 1833.  


Before hearing of the destruction of the Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
printing office

JS revelations, dated 20 July and 1 Aug. 1831, directed establishment of LDS church’s first printing office in Independence, Missouri. Dedicated by Bishop Edward Partridge, 29 May 1832. Located on Lot 76, on Liberty Street just south of courthouse square....

More Info
, church leaders in Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
were already making plans to establish a printing operation in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
. A 2 August 1833 revelation directed the church to build a printing office

Following destruction of church printing office in Independence, Missouri, July 1833, JS and other church leaders determined to set up new printing office in Kirtland under firm name F. G. Williams & Co. Oliver Cowdery purchased new printing press in New ...

More Info
in Kirtland in order to publish JS’s recently completed revision of the Bible and any other works that God commanded to be published.7

Revelation, 2 Aug. 1833–B [D&C 94:10–12]; see also Faulring et al., Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 3–8.  


Yet printing was meant to continue in Missouri as well. On 6 August 1833, JS, Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

View Full Bio
, and Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
instructed Missouri church leaders to construct a house of printing like the one they would build in Kirtland. They also directed Missouri leaders to “print an Edition of the schriptures

The sacred, written word of God containing the “mind & will of the Lord” and “matters of divine revelation.” Members of the church considered the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and JS’s revelations to be scripture. Revelations in 1830 and 1831 directed JS to ...

View Glossary
there at the same time we do here so that two additions [editions] will be struck at the same time.”8 After Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
arrived in Kirtland on 9 August with news of the misfortunes in Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

More Info
, JS reiterated to Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

View Full Bio
and others that God had “communicated to m[e] by the gift of the holy ghost

A right or privilege bestowed through the confirmation ordinance. Individuals were confirmed members of the church and received the gift of the Holy Ghost through the laying on of hands. The Book of Mormon explained that remission of sins requires not only...

View Glossary
. . . that an other printing office must be built” in Missouri—“the Lord knows how.”9 However, to explain why The Evening and the Morning Star was no longer going to be published in Missouri, Kirtland church leaders decided to have Cowdery publish an extra of the Star in Kirtland.10

Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 10 Aug. 1833. The extra, which explained in detail church members’ difficulties in Jackson County, was not published until February 1834. (The Evening and the Morning Star, Extra, Feb. 1834, [1]–[2].)  


Just a few days later, they directed Cowdery to print the Star in Kirtland until the Missouri Saints could “obtain deliverence” and establish another press.11
Because church leaders wanted printing in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
to begin as soon as possible, members of the United Firm met on 11 September 1833 to discuss how the printing operation would be established. The United Firm—a group of eleven church leaders in Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
and Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
—were responsible for overseeing the church’s mercantile and publishing endeavors, which were managed by various branches of the firm. The mercantile operations were overseen by N. K. Whitney & Co.

A partnership between Newel K. Whitney and Sidney Gilbert; later the branch of the United Firm responsible for overseeing the church’s mercantile endeavors in Kirtland, Ohio. In late 1826 or early 1827, Whitney and Gilbert established this partnership to ...

View Glossary
in Kirtland and by Gilbert, Whitney & Co.

The branch of the United Firm responsible for overseeing the church’s mercantile endeavors in Missouri. Sidney Gilbert and Newel K. Whitney were partners in the mercantile business in Kirtland, Ohio, before Gilbert relocated to Missouri, by January 1832, ...

View Glossary
in Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

More Info
; the publishing endeavors, including W. W. Phelps & Co., were managed by the Literary Firm

The branch of the United Firm responsible for church publications. In November 1831, a revelation appointed JS, Martin Harris, Oliver Cowdery, John Whitmer, Sidney Rigdon, and William W. Phelps as “stewards over the revelations & commandments.” In March 1832...

View Glossary
, which consisted of six men who had been designated as “stewards

One who managed property and goods under the law of consecration; also someone given a specific ecclesiastical responsibility. According to the “Laws of the Church of Christ,” members of the church were to make donations to the bishop, who would record the...

View Glossary
over the revelations” in November 1831.12

Revelation, 1 Mar. 1832 [D&C 78:3]; Revelation, 26 Apr. 1832 [D&C 82:11–12]; Note, 15 Mar. 1833; Revelation, 4 June 1833 [D&C 96:6–8]; Minutes, 26–27 Apr. 1832; Minutes, 30 Apr. 1832; Revelation, 12 Nov. 1831 [D&C 70:1–3]; Masthead, The Evening and the Morning Star, June 1832, [8].  


In this 11 September 1833 council, members of the United Firm established another entity to carry out printing in Kirtland: F. G. Williams & Co.

A firm established by the United Firm on 11 September 1833 to print newspapers in Kirtland, Ohio. In December 1833, F. G. Williams & Co. resumed the interrupted printing of the church newspaper The Evening and the Morning Star. After the United Firm was reorganized...

View Glossary
The council also decided to establish another church newspaper in Kirtland—the Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Cowdery later explained that this newspaper was necessary because “The Evening and the Morning Star was designed to be published at Missouri” and church leaders believed a paper under a different name “would be more appropriate” in Kirtland.13

Oliver Cowdery, “Address to the Patrons of the Evening and the Morning Star,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 185.  


Leaders quickly acted on the decisions made in the meeting. Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
traveled to New York

Located in northeast region of U.S. Area settled by Dutch traders, 1620s; later governed by Britain, 1664–1776. Admitted to U.S. as state, 1788. Population in 1810 about 1,000,000; in 1820 about 1,400,000; in 1830 about 1,900,000; and in 1840 about 2,400,...

More Info
in October 1833 to purchase a printing press and type while a shop

Following destruction of church printing office in Independence, Missouri, July 1833, JS and other church leaders determined to set up new printing office in Kirtland under firm name F. G. Williams & Co. Oliver Cowdery purchased new printing press in New ...

More Info
was set up in a Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
tavern that had been purchased with the Peter French

Ca. 1774–after 1850. Farmer, tavern keeper, hotelier. Born in New York. Moved to Willoughby, Western Reserve (later Lake Co.), Ohio, 1799. Married Sally. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, 1811, as one of its earliest settlers. Named as one of town proprietors...

View Full Bio
farm

Consisted of 103 acres formerly owned by Peter French. Purchased for LDS church for $5,000, 1833. Area used to build houses, including JS’s; community buildings, such as new schoolhouse; and House of the Lord. Kirtland residents called area “French farm” ...

More Info
, since the new printing office had not yet been built.14

Frederick G. Williams, Kirtland, OH, to “Dear Brethren,” 10 Oct. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 56–60; JS History, vol. A-1, 358; Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland Mills, OH, to Ambrose Palmer, New Portage, OH, 30 Oct. 1833, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 4–5; Berrett, Sacred Places, 3:16–17, 29–31.  


On 18 December 1833, this shop was dedicated and the first proof sheet of the Kirtland continuation of The Evening and the Morning Star was printed.15

JS, Journal, 18 Dec. 1833.  


The Messenger and Advocate, however, did not commence publication until October 1834, mainly because Cowdery first finished printing the remaining issues of the second volume of the Star before beginning work on the new publication.16

Oliver Cowdery, “Address,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, Oct. 1834, 1:1–2; Oliver Cowdery, “Address to the Patrons of the Evening and the Morning Star,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 185. Church members were driven from Jackson County in November 1833, making it difficult for them to establish another printing operation in Missouri. (Oliver Cowdery, “To the Patrons of the Evening and the Morning Star,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 113; Parley P. Pratt et al., “‘The Mormons’ So Called,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Extra, Feb. 1834, [1]–[2].)  


As clerk, Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
recorded the minutes of the 11 September council. He later copied the minutes into Minute Book 1.

Facts