30494

Letter to Edward Partridge, 5 December 1833

threaten our distruction and we know not how soon they may be permitted to follow the examples of the Missourians37

Four months earlier, in August, JS wrote, “We are no safer here in Kirtland then you are in Zion the cloud is gethering arou[nd] us with great fury and all pharohs host or in other words all hell and the com[bined] pow[e]rs of Earth are Marsheling their forces to overthrow us.” On 21 January 1834, Oliver Cowdery wrote, “Our enemies have threatened us, but thank the Lord we are yet on earth. They came out on the 8th about 12 oclock at night, a little west & fired cannon, we suppose to alarm us, but no one was frightened, but all prepared to defend ourselves if they made a sally upon our houses.” (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 18 Aug. 1833; Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to William W. Phelps and John Whitmer, Clay Co., MO, 21 Jan. 1834, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 22.)  


but our trust is in God and we are determined by his grace assisting us to maintain the cause and hold out faithful to the end that we may be crowned with crowns of celestial glory

Highest kingdom of glory in the afterlife; symbolically represented by the sun. According to a vision dated 16 February 1832, inheritors of the celestial kingdom “are they who received the testimony of Jesus, & believed on his name, & were baptized,” “receive...

View Glossary
and enter into that rest that is prepared for the children of God,38

See Revelation, 22–23 Sept. 1832 [D&C 84:24]; and Revelation, 7 Aug. 1831 [D&C 59:2].  


we are now distributing the tipe and calculate to commence setting to day and issue a paper the Last of this week or beginning of next,39

On 11 September 1833, church leaders in Kirtland decided to buy a new press and type to continue printing The Evening and the Morning Star, and the following month Cowdery traveled to New York to make the purchases. On 6 December 1833, Cowdery and others began to typeset the first Kirtland issue of the Star. Nearly two weeks later, on 18 December 1833, “the Elders assembled togeth[er] in the printing office and then proceded to bow down before the Lord and dedicate the printing press and all that pertains therunto to God . . . and then proceded to take the first proof sheet of the star edited by Bro Oliv[er].” (Minutes, 11 Sept. 1833; Frederick G. Williams, Kirtland, OH, to “Dear Brethren,” 10 Oct. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, p. 58; JS, Journal, 4–6 and 18 Dec. 1833.)  


we wrote to bro Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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some time since and also sent by bro Orson

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

View Full Bio
for the names of the subscribers for the star which we have not yet received and until we receive them the most of the brethren will be deprived of them and when you receive this if you have not sent them I wish you to attend to it immediately as much inconvenience will attend a delay,40

Oliver Cowdery initially made this request in an August 1833 letter to church leaders in Independence the day after he arrived in Kirtland. In early October, Frederick G. Williams reminded William W. Phelps that “Oliver has writen to you for the names and residences of the subscribers for the Star and if you have not sent them we wish you to send them immediately that there may be no delay in the papers going to subscribers as soon as they can be printed.” Unbeknownst to JS, church leaders in Missouri mailed the list of the Star’s subscribers two days before he wrote the letter featured here. Oliver Cowdery later recorded in a January 1834 letter to Missouri, “We received the names of our former subscribers a few days since, which was mailed on the 3d of last month.” In the January 1834 issue of the Star, Cowdery noted, “We forwarded the last number to those whose names were on the Mail Book of W. W. Phelps & CO. at Missouri.” (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 10 Aug. 1833; Frederick G. Williams, Kirtland, OH, to “Dear Brethren,” 10 Oct. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, p. 58; Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to John Whitmer, 1 Jan. 1834, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 14; Notice, The Evening and the Morning Star, Jan. 1834, 128.)  


We expect shortly to publish a political paper weekly in favour the present administration, the influential men of that party have offered a liberal patronage to us and we hope to succeed for thereby we can shew the public the purity of our intention in supporting the government under which we live—41

The Church of Christ apparently intended to print a newspaper to curry favor with the Democratic Party. Whether the paper was to address local, state, or national politics is unknown. It is also not known which influential Democrats had offered church members patronage. In August 1833, JS told church leaders in Missouri that “we think it would be wise in yo[u] to try to git influence by offering to print a paper in favor of the goverment.” On 29 November 1833, Oliver Cowdery wrote a letter from Kirtland, saying, “We shall print the Democrat in this place, as circumstances render it impossible to print it elsewhere We shall draw a Prospectus soon.” Circumstances, however, prevented the church from publishing a political newspaper until 1835, when the Northern Times was first printed. (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 18 Aug. 1833; Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to Horace Kingsbury, Painesville, OH, 29 Nov. 1833, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 10; Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 1:51–53.)  


We Learn by Bro Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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that the brethren have surrendered their arms to the enemy and are fleeing across the river

One of longest rivers in North America, in excess of 3,000 miles. From headwaters in Montana to confluence with Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri River drains 580,000 square miles (about one-sixth of continental U.S.). Explored by Lewis and Clark...

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42

This information was not included in the extract of Phelps’s letter that Cowdery published in the Star. (See Letter from William W. Phelps, 6–7 Nov. 1833.)  


if that is the case it is not meet that they should recommence hostilities with them but if not you should maintain the ground as Long as there is a man Left. as the spot of ground upon which you were located is the place appointed of the Lord for your inheritance

Generally referred to land promised by or received from God for the church and its members. A January 1831 revelation promised church members a land of inheritance. In March and May 1831, JS dictated revelations commanding members “to purchase lands for an...

View Glossary
and it was right in the sight of God that you [p. 69]
threaten our distruction and we know not  how soon they may be permitted to follow  the examples of the Missourians37

Four months earlier, in August, JS wrote, “We are no safer here in Kirtland then you are in Zion the cloud is gethering arou[nd] us with great fury and all pharohs host or in other words all hell and the com[bined] pow[e]rs of Earth are Marsheling their forces to overthrow us.” On 21 January 1834, Oliver Cowdery wrote, “Our enemies have threatened us, but thank the Lord we are yet on earth. They came out on the 8th about 12 oclock at night, a little west & fired cannon, we suppose to alarm us, but no one was frightened, but all prepared to defend ourselves if they made a sally upon our houses.” (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 18 Aug. 1833; Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to William W. Phelps and John Whitmer, Clay Co., MO, 21 Jan. 1834, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 22.)  


but our  trust is in God and we are determined by  his grace assisting us to maintain the cause  and hold out faithful to the end that we  may be crowned with crowns of celestial glory

Highest kingdom of glory in the afterlife; symbolically represented by the sun. According to a vision dated 16 February 1832, inheritors of the celestial kingdom “are they who received the testimony of Jesus, & believed on his name, & were baptized,” “receive...

View Glossary
 and enter into that rest that is prepared for  the children of God,38

See Revelation, 22–23 Sept. 1832 [D&C 84:24]; and Revelation, 7 Aug. 1831 [D&C 59:2].  


we are now distributing  the tipe and calculate to commence setting to  day and issue a paper the Last of this week or  beginning of next,39

On 11 September 1833, church leaders in Kirtland decided to buy a new press and type to continue printing The Evening and the Morning Star, and the following month Cowdery traveled to New York to make the purchases. On 6 December 1833, Cowdery and others began to typeset the first Kirtland issue of the Star. Nearly two weeks later, on 18 December 1833, “the Elders assembled togeth[er] in the printing office and then proceded to bow down before the Lord and dedicate the printing press and all that pertains therunto to God . . . and then proceded to take the first proof sheet of the star edited by Bro Oliv[er].” (Minutes, 11 Sept. 1833; Frederick G. Williams, Kirtland, OH, to “Dear Brethren,” 10 Oct. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, p. 58; JS, Journal, 4–6 and 18 Dec. 1833.)  


we wrote to bro Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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some  time since and also sent by bro Orson

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

View Full Bio
for  the names of the subscribe[r]s for the star which  we have not yet received and until we receive  them the most of the brethren will be deprived  of them and when you receive this if you  have not sent them I wish you to attend to  it immediately as much inconvenience will  attend a delay,40

Oliver Cowdery initially made this request in an August 1833 letter to church leaders in Independence the day after he arrived in Kirtland. In early October, Frederick G. Williams reminded William W. Phelps that “Oliver has writen to you for the names and residences of the subscribers for the Star and if you have not sent them we wish you to send them immediately that there may be no delay in the papers going to subscribers as soon as they can be printed.” Unbeknownst to JS, church leaders in Missouri mailed the list of the Star’s subscribers two days before he wrote the letter featured here. Oliver Cowdery later recorded in a January 1834 letter to Missouri, “We received the names of our former subscribers a few days since, which was mailed on the 3d of last month.” In the January 1834 issue of the Star, Cowdery noted, “We forwarded the last number to those whose names were on the Mail Book of W. W. Phelps & CO. at Missouri.” (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 10 Aug. 1833; Frederick G. Williams, Kirtland, OH, to “Dear Brethren,” 10 Oct. 1833, in JS Letterbook 1, p. 58; Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to John Whitmer, 1 Jan. 1834, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 14; Notice, The Evening and the Morning Star, Jan. 1834, 128.)  


We expect shortly to publish  a political paper weekly in favour the present  administration, the influential men of that  party have offered a liberal patronage to us  and we hope to succeed for thereby we can  shew the public the purity of our intention  in supporting the government under which we  live—41

The Church of Christ apparently intended to print a newspaper to curry favor with the Democratic Party. Whether the paper was to address local, state, or national politics is unknown. It is also not known which influential Democrats had offered church members patronage. In August 1833, JS told church leaders in Missouri that “we think it would be wise in yo[u] to try to git influence by offering to print a paper in favor of the goverment.” On 29 November 1833, Oliver Cowdery wrote a letter from Kirtland, saying, “We shall print the Democrat in this place, as circumstances render it impossible to print it elsewhere We shall draw a Prospectus soon.” Circumstances, however, prevented the church from publishing a political newspaper until 1835, when the Northern Times was first printed. (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 18 Aug. 1833; Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to Horace Kingsbury, Painesville, OH, 29 Nov. 1833, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 10; Crawley, Descriptive Bibliography, 1:51–53.)  


We Learn by Bro Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

View Full Bio
that the  brethren have surrendered their arms to the  enemy and are fleeing across the river

One of longest rivers in North America, in excess of 3,000 miles. From headwaters in Montana to confluence with Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri River drains 580,000 square miles (about one-sixth of continental U.S.). Explored by Lewis and Clark...

More Info
42

This information was not included in the extract of Phelps’s letter that Cowdery published in the Star. (See Letter from William W. Phelps, 6–7 Nov. 1833.)  


if  that is the case it is not meet that they  should recommence hostilities with them  but if not you should maintain the ground  as Long as there is a man Left. as the spot of  ground upon which you were located is the  place appointed of the Lord for your inheritance

Generally referred to land promised by or received from God for the church and its members. A January 1831 revelation promised church members a land of inheritance. In March and May 1831, JS dictated revelations commanding members “to purchase lands for an...

View Glossary
 and it was right in the sight of God that you [p. 69]
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JS wrote this 5 December 1833 letter in response to the heartrending and sometimes conflicting reports he received about the violence against church members in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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, Missouri, that took place in early November 1833. The inconsistent reports were only the latest frustration for JS, who continued to agonize over the fate of friends and followers in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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, whose efforts to build a “New Jerusalem

The Book of Mormon indicated that, in preparation for Jesus Christ’s second coming, a city should be built on the American continent and called the New Jerusalem. The Book of Mormon further explained that the remnant of the seed of Joseph (understood to be...

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” had stalled in the summer of 1833 because of persecution.1
Following armed conflict on 4 November 1833, antagonistic residents and militia of Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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forced members of the Church of Christ

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

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to vacate their properties and flee to Clay County

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

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, Missouri, and elsewhere over the next few weeks.2 In the midst of the violence, Orson Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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and John Gould

21 Dec. 1784–25 June 1855. Pastor, farmer. Born in New Hampshire. Married first Oliva Swanson of Massachusetts. Resided at Portsmouth, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire, 1808. Lived in Vermont. Moved to northern Pennsylvania, 1817. Served as minister in Freewill...

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left Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

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, Missouri, for Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, Ohio, on 6 November 1833 to report to JS on recent hostilities.3

“The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 118.  


While traveling from Independence to Boonville, Missouri, on the Missouri River

One of longest rivers in North America, in excess of 3,000 miles. From headwaters in Montana to confluence with Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri River drains 580,000 square miles (about one-sixth of continental U.S.). Explored by Lewis and Clark...

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on board the steamboat Charleston, Hyde wrote at least two letters to newspaper editors in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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informing them of the violent events in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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: on 8 November he wrote to the editor of the Boonville Herald, and the following day he wrote to the editor of the Missouri Republican.4

It is unknown whether a complete copy of Hyde’s published letter to the editor of the Boonville Herald still exists. However, Oliver Cowdery included at least a partial copy of the letter in The Evening and the Morning Star. (“The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 118; see also “Civil War in Jackson County!,” Missouri Republican [St. Louis], 12 Nov. 1833, [3].)  


Upon arriving in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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on 25 November, Hyde and Gould informed JS of “the melencholly intelegen [intelligence] of the riot in Zion

JS revelation, dated 20 July 1831, designated Missouri as “land of promise” for gathering of Saints and place for “city of Zion,” with Independence area as “center place” of Zion. Latter-day Saint settlements elsewhere, such as in Kirtland, Ohio, became known...

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.”5

JS, Journal, 25 Nov. 1833; see also “More Trouble in the Mormon Camp,” Painesville (OH) Telegraph, 29 Nov. 1833, [3].  


On 6 November 1833, the same day that Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

View Full Bio
and Gould

21 Dec. 1784–25 June 1855. Pastor, farmer. Born in New Hampshire. Married first Oliva Swanson of Massachusetts. Resided at Portsmouth, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire, 1808. Lived in Vermont. Moved to northern Pennsylvania, 1817. Served as minister in Freewill...

View Full Bio
left Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

More Info
, William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

View Full Bio
began writing a letter to JS to inform him of the recent events in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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. The next day he completed his letter and reported that mobs had begun to force church members to leave their homes in Jackson County—information that Hyde and Gould may not have known. Although Phelps’s original letter no longer exists, according to the letter featured here, Phelps’s missive arrived in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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before 5 December 1833. The most complete known version of Phelps’s letter was published by Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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in the December 1833 issue of The Evening and the Morning Star.6 The letter from JS featured here discusses information that appears to have been conveyed only through Phelps’s original letter—information that Cowdery, perhaps waiting for confirmation of the Mormon evacuation from Jackson County, did not include in the published version.
Some of the information conveyed in Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

View Full Bio
’s letter apparently conflicted with the report Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

View Full Bio
sent to the editor of the Missouri Republican, to which JS by this time had access. Perhaps because the information he received was inconsistent, and possibly in an effort to document the violence against his followers, JS wrote this 5 December letter urging church leaders in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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to “collect every particular concerning the Mob from the begining and send us a correct statement of fact as they transpired.” Until then, he wrote, “it is difficult for us to advise.” Even without clarification, JS told the Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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church leaders that if they had not yet been driven out they should fight to stay on their lands as long as they could: “You should maintain the ground as Long as there is a man Left. . . . it was right in the sight of God that you contend for it to the last.”7

JS had earlier instructed church members in an 18 August 1833 letter to not sell their land in Jackson County. (Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson Co., MO, 18 Aug. 1833.)  


Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

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copied this 5 December letter into JS’s letterbook and concluded by inscribing “E Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

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” on the final line, indicating that the original letter was most likely addressed to Edward Partridge. It is clear, however, that this letter was intended for church leaders in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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generally. Unfortunately, the original letter is no longer extant, and it is unknown if Partridge or any other church leader in Missouri ever received this correspondence.
Even though JS’s letter requested clarification and accurate information from church leaders in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
, Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

View Full Bio
, who was then in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, was able to quickly respond to some of JS’s concerns. Hyde wrote another letter to Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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, the editor of The Evening and the Morning Star, which corrected parts of his earlier missive to the editors of the Boonville Herald. Oliver Cowdery published Hyde’s second letter in the same December issue of the Star that published Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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’s 6–7 November letter and an extract of Hyde’s letter to the Boonville Herald.8

Orson Hyde, Letter to the Editor, The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833, 120.  


It is not known precisely when or why Hyde wrote his corrective letter, though he may have done so at the behest of JS or to alleviate JS’s concerns, expressed in the letter featured here, about the inconsistent information he had heard about events in Missouri. By 10 December 1833, JS received correspondence from Missouri that provided more information about the persecution and expulsion of church members in that place. Given that Hyde arrived in Kirtland in late November and that the first Kirtland issue of the Star was prepared for printing no sooner than 18 December,9

JS, Journal, 25 Nov. and 18 Dec. 1833.  


Hyde would have had sufficient time to consult these letters from Missouri that arrived in Kirtland by 10 December,10 consider his previous statements, and prepare an amended account for publication in the Star.

Facts