A gathering of church leaders assembled “for consultation, deliberation and advice”; also a body responsible for governance or administration. As early as 9 February 1831, a revelation instructed that “the Elders & Bishop shall Council together & they shall do by the direction of the spirit as it must be necessary.” A March 1833 revelation directed JS, Sidney Rigdon, and Frederick G. Williams to “preside in council” and set in order the affairs of the church. JS later taught that councils were a central feature in the governance of the primitive church and even of heaven. Presidencies of priesthood quorums and the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo also operated as councils. Elders and high priests sometimes held “special” conferences, or councils, to consider important matters of church business. See also “,” “,” and “.”