Military Authorities

Caldwell County Militia
supplied the soldiers for the Fifty-Ninth Regiment of the state militia. The militia’s commander in chief was the governor, . served as the major general over the militia’s Third Division, also called the “the northern division,” which included several of the northwestern counties, such as and counties. Within the Third Division, served as the brigadier general over the Second Brigade, which included , , and possibly other counties. The Fifty-Ninth Regiment was organized in mid-1837 by Latter-day Saints , , , and .
Like other regiments, the Fifty-Ninth Regiment was commanded by a colonel and included several other officers and subdivisions. and were commissioned as colonels. There is conflicting evidence as to who was colonel and who was lieutenant colonel. A county history that appears to draw on militia records lists Hinkle as the colonel and Wight as lieutenant colonel. Regiments were divided into battalions, which were commanded by majors. Battalions were in turn divided into companies, which were commanded by captains. The battalion and company substructure of the Fifty-Ninth Regiment is not known. law allowed for a regiment to have as many as sixteen companies. The Fifty-Ninth Regiment consisted of at least seven companies. The officers in the companies are mostly unknown, except for those in the Second Company. Within the Second Company, it is possible that some of the men listed after Lewis Turner were corporals, not sergeants, matching the 3 October 1838 organization.
 
Fifty-Ninth Regiment
Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Major
Adjutant
Sergeant Major
 
First Company
Captain
(apparently departed between late May and late June 1838)
 
Second Company
Circa early 1838 3 October 1838
Captain Captain
Lieutenants Lieutenant
Jerome Benson Jerome Benson
D. Chase
Ensign Ensign
William Clark Milo Andrus
Sergeants (or possibly Corporals) Sergeants
Chapman Duncan Eli Chase, first sergeant
Lewis Turner William R. Cole, second sergeant
Edward Larkey James Daily, third sergeant
Perry Durfee Asa C. Earl, fourth sergeant
William Hawk Corporals
William Jay, first corporal
Lyman Stevens Uriah B. Powell, second corporal
Nelson Mainard, third corporal
Philo Allen, fourth corporal
 
Seventh Company
Captain
First Lieutenant
 
Officers in One or More Unidentified Companies
Captain
Captain
Lieutenant
George P. Dykes
Ensign
Jacob Gates
 
Society of the Daughter of Zion (Danites)
The was an oath-bound military society organized among the Latter-day Saints in circa late June 1838 to defend the church from internal and external opposition. The members of this organization soon became known as Danites. The exact organizational structure of the society is difficult to reconstruct because of a scarcity of sources. A constitution for the society was presented in court in the Missouri government’s case against JS. Although it is uncertain whether JS ever approved of this constitution, his journal and other contemporaneous sources confirm that the society implemented several organizational aspects that were articulated in the constitution. The society’s constitution described an executive branch consisting of the and a legislative branch consisting of the First Presidency as well as generals and colonels. The constitution also outlined the function of a secretary of war and specified that the military forces were to be led by a captain general. The general membership of the society was apparently organized in a military style, with generals, colonels, and other officers. Some participants described a command structure of captains of thousands, captains of hundreds, captains of fifties, and captains of tens. No captains of thousands or of hundreds have been identified. Given the size of these units and the general parallel between Danite offices and militia offices, captains of thousands and of hundreds may have gone by other military titles. The generals were apparently general officers over the Danites in both and counties. Caldwell County probably had at least one captain of fifty, as did Daviess County, but none have been identified. The division in Daviess County may not have had a lieutenant colonel or a major because of the much smaller number of Saints in that county. The following charts show only the known officers.
Captain General
(removed early July 1838)
(appointed early July 1838)
Major General
(removed after 8 August 1838)
Brigadier General
Adjutant
 
Caldwell County Daviess County
Colonel Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Major Captains of Fifties
Captains of Tens Captains of Tens
Unidentified
 
War Department
It is unclear how long the original command structure of the continued or whether or to what extent the small, secret, oath-bound society that started in summer 1838 had continuity with the much larger military force of mid-October, which included many if not most of the adult male members of the church. Multiple sources attest that the term Danites was being used—perhaps informally—to describe the large Mormon military force that was active in October. If this military force had continuity with the original Danite society, the original organization had significantly transformed. For example, in the October structure, held the office of surgeon instead of his former position of major general. Further, the primary military leaders in October were , , and instead of Generals and , although Higbee may have continued in an executive capacity. It is also unclear how much overlap there was between positions in the church militia and the regiment of the state militia.
, one of the men who used the term Danites to describe Mormon forces, more often used the term armies of Israel, perhaps as an informal title. In November, witnesses testifying in the court hearing about the October conflict also used the word army to describe the Mormon military. On 24 October, in a council meeting held in home, JS and other officers reorganized the command structure of the Mormon “war department,” which included the officers in the following chart.
Caldwell County Daviess County
Colonel Commander in Chief (Infantry) Colonel Commander in Chief (Infantry)
Captain (Cavalry) Captain (Cavalry)
 
Officers in Unidentified Organizations
Historical accounts of the October 1838 conflict between the Latter-day Saints and other Missourians mention several officers without clarifying whether they held offices in the state militia, the society, the Army of Israel, a posse comitatus, or some other well or loosely defined organization—or even some combination of these organizations.
Captains Lieutenants
, captain of fifty , first lieutenant
, captain of ten , second lieutenant/ensign
William Allred
David Evans
Ephraim Owen
  1. 1

    Lilburn W. Boggs, Commission, Jefferson City, MO, to Amasa Lyman, 19 June 1838, Amasa Lyman Collection, CHL; William W. Phelps, Commission to Philo Dibble, 23 Aug. 1837, CHL.  

    Lyman, Amasa. Journals, 1832–1877. Amasa Lyman Collection, 1832–1877. CHL. MS 829, boxes 1–3.

    Phelps, William W. Commission to Philo Dibble, 23 Aug. 1837. CHL.

  2. 2

    Constitution of the State of Missouri [1820], Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri [1836], p. 20, art. 4, sec. 5.  

    Laws of the State of Missouri, Passed at the First Session of the Ninth General Assembly, Begun and Held at the City of Jefferson, on Monday, the Twenty-First Day of November, in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-Six. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Chambers and Knapp, 1841.

  3. 3

    David R. Atchison, Adam-ondi-Ahman, MO, to Lilburn W. Boggs, 17 Sept. 1838, copy, Mormon War Papers, MSA.  

    Mormon War Papers, 1838–1841. MSA.

  4. 4

    “General David Rice Atchison,” in United States Biographical Dictionary, 171.  

    The United States Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gallery of Eminent and Self-Made Men: Missouri Volume. New York: United States Biographical Publishing Company, 1878.

  5. 5

    Hiram Parks, Millport, MO, to Lilburn W. Boggs, Jefferson City, MO, 25 Sept. 1838, copy; Hiram Parks, Carroll Co., MO, to David R. Atchison, 7 Oct. 1838, copy, Mormon War Papers, MSA.  

    Mormon War Papers, 1838–1841. MSA.

  6. 6

    Hiram Parks, Millport, MO, to Lilburn W. Boggs, Jefferson City, MO, 25 Sept. 1838, copy, Mormon War Papers, MSA.  

    Mormon War Papers, 1838–1841. MSA.

  7. 7

    Hiram Parks, Millport, MO, to Lilburn W. Boggs, Jefferson City, MO, 25 Sept. 1838, copy; Hiram Parks, Carroll Co., MO, to David R. Atchison, 7 Oct. 1838, copy, Mormon War Papers, MSA; Lilburn W. Boggs, Commission, Jefferson City, MO, to Amasa Lyman, 19 June 1838, Amasa Lyman Collection, CHL.  

    Mormon War Papers, 1838–1841. MSA.

    Lyman, Amasa. Journals, 1832–1877. Amasa Lyman Collection, 1832–1877. CHL. MS 829, boxes 1–3.

  8. 8

    See William W. Phelps, Commission to Philo Dibble, 23 Aug. 1837, CHL; Dibble, “Philo Dibble’s Narrative,” 88.  

    Phelps, William W. Commission to Philo Dibble, 23 Aug. 1837. CHL.

    Dibble, Philo. “Philo Dibble’s Narrative.” In Early Scenes in Church History, Faith-Promoting Series 8, pp. 74–96. Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882.

  9. 9

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, 139. This order is also suggested by Philo Dibble’s recollection that the regiment was organized by William W. Phelps, George M. Hinkle, Lyman Wight, and Reed Peck (listed in that order). Presumably Phelps was acting as the county’s presiding judge, with authority to call out the county regiment, and Peck may have been acting in a clerical capacity, as he later did while the regiment’s adjutant. According to Dibble’s order, Hinkle and Wight were presumably the colonel and lieutenant colonel, respectively. However, when JS’s Bill of Damages was revised for publication in the Times and Seasons, Hinkle’s title was listed as “Lieutenant Colonel,” with Wight’s title as colonel. Additionally, Wight wrote in 1857 that he had been unanimously elected as colonel in the regiment. Most contemporaneous sources refer to the men simply as “Colonel Hinkle” and “Colonel Wight,” with no further specificity, as in the original version of the Bill of Damages. (Dibble, “Philo Dibble’s Narrative,” 88; Bill of Damages, 4 June 1839; Lyman Wight, Mountain Valley, TX, to Wilford Woodruff, 24 Aug. 1857, Historian’s Office, Histories of the Twelve, 1856–1858, 1861, CHL; Sampson Avard, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [8], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence”; Pratt, History of the Late Persecution, 39–40; see also Lyman Wight, Testimony, Nauvoo, IL, 1 July 1843, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL.)  

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. . . . St. Louis: National Historical Co., 1886.

    Dibble, Philo. “Philo Dibble’s Narrative.” In Early Scenes in Church History, Faith-Promoting Series 8, pp. 74–96. Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882.

    Historian’s Office. Histories of the Twelve, 1856–1858, 1861. CHL. CR 100 93.

    Nauvoo, IL. Records, 1841–1845. CHL. MS 16800.

  10. 10

    An Act More Effectually to Provide for the National Defence by Establishing an Uniform Militia throughout the United States [8 May 1792], The Public Statutes at Large, 2nd Cong., 1st Sess., chap. 33, p. 272, sec. 3.  

    The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, from the Organization of the Government in 1789, to March 3, 1845. . . . Edited by Richard Peters. 8 vols. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1846–1867.

  11. 11

    An Act to Regulate, Govern, and Discipline the Militia of the State of Missouri [6 Feb. 1837], Laws of the State of Missouri [1841], p. 80, art. 4, sec. 11.  

    Laws of the State of Missouri, Passed at the First Session of the Ninth General Assembly, Begun and Held at the City of Jefferson, on Monday, the Twenty-First Day of November, in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-Six. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Chambers and Knapp, 1841.

  12. 12

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, 139.  

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. . . . St. Louis: National Historical Co., 1886.

  13. 13

    Bill of Damages, 4 June 1839; History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, 139.  

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. . . . St. Louis: National Historical Co., 1886.

  14. 14

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, 139.  

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. . . . St. Louis: National Historical Co., 1886.

  15. 15

    Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 41, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  16. 16

    William W. Phelps, Commission to Philo Dibble, 23 Aug. 1837, CHL.  

    Phelps, William W. Commission to Philo Dibble, 23 Aug. 1837. CHL.

  17. 17

    Presumably, McLellin was replaced following his apparent removal from the church in May 1838. (See Baugh, “Call to Arms,” 385–386; and JS, Journal, 11 May 1838.)  

    Baugh, Alexander L. “A Call to Arms: The 1838 Mormon Defense of Northern Missouri.” PhD diss., Brigham Young University, 1996. Also available as A Call to Arms: The 1838 Mormon Defense of Northern Missouri, Dissertations in Latter-day Saint History (Provo, UT: Joseph Fielding Smith Institute for Latter-day Saint History; BYU Studies, 2000).

  18. 18

    Porter, “Odyssey of William Earl McLellin,” 323; [William E. McLellin], Editorial, Ensign of Liberty, Mar. 1847, 9; Johnson and Romig, Index to Early Caldwell County, Missouri, Land Records, 121.  

    Porter, Larry C. “The Odyssey of William Earl McLellin: Man of Diversity, 1806–83.” In The Journals of William E. McLellin, 1831–1836, edited by Jan Shipps and John W. Welch, 291–378. Provo, UT: BYU Studies; Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

    Ensign of Liberty. Kirtland, OH. Mar. 1847–Aug. 1849.

    Johnson, Clark V., and Ronald E. Romig. An Index to Early Caldwell County, Missouri, Land Records. Rev. ed. Independence, MO: Missouri Mormon Frontier Foundation, 2002.

  19. 19

    Attendance List, no date, in “List of Names in Capt. Brunson Co.,” CHL.  

    “List of Names in Capt. Brunson Co.” No date. CHL.

  20. 20

    “List of Names in Capt. Brunson Co.,” no date, CHL.  

    “List of Names in Capt. Brunson Co.” No date. CHL.

  21. 21

    Although the lists of company members do not mention a specific company, elsewhere Seymour Brunson stated that he served as captain of the Second Company. (Seymour Brunson, Affidavit, Adams Co., IL, 8 May 1839, Mormon Redress Petitions, CHL.)  

    Mormon Redress Petitions, 1839–1845. CHL. MS 2703.

  22. 22

    Lilburn W. Boggs, Commission, Jefferson City, MO, to Amasa Lyman, 19 June 1838, Amasa Lyman Collection, CHL.  

    Lyman, Amasa. Journals, 1832–1877. Amasa Lyman Collection, 1832–1877. CHL. MS 829, boxes 1–3.

  23. 23

    Holbrook, Reminiscences, 43.  

    Holbrook, Joseph. Reminiscences, not before 1871. Photocopy. CHL. MS 5004. Original in private possession.

  24. 24

    Pratt, History of the Late Persecution, 33.  

  25. 25

    Arthur Morrison, Affidavit, Adams Co., IL, 1 Nov. 1839, Mormon Redress Petitions, CHL; Corrill, Brief History, 41.  

    Mormon Redress Petitions, 1839–1845. CHL. MS 2703.

  26. 26

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, 139.  

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. . . . St. Louis: National Historical Co., 1886.

  27. 27

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, 139.  

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. . . . St. Louis: National Historical Co., 1886.

  28. 28

    See “Danites” in the glossary.  

  29. 29

    See Constitution of the Society of the Daughter of Zion, ca. Late June 1838.  

  30. 30

    Constitution of the Society of the Daughter of Zion, ca. Late June 1838.  

  31. 31

    Stout, Reminiscences, 9–10; Rockwood, Journal, 22 Oct. 1838.  

    Stout, Hosea. Reminiscences and Journals, 1845–1869. Microfilm. CHL. Originals at Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City. Also available as On the Mormon Frontier: The Diary of Hosea Stout, 1844–1861, edited by Juanita Brooks, 2 vols. (1964. Reprint, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press; Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1982).

    Rockwood, Albert Perry. Journal Entries, Oct. 1838–Jan. 1839. Photocopy. CHL. MS 2606.

  32. 32

    “Celebration of the 4th of July,” Elders’ Journal, Aug. 1838, 60; Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [56], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence”; Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 45, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  33. 33

    Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 47, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  34. 34

    JS, Journal, 7–9 Aug. 1838; Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, pp. 47–48, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  35. 35

    In the November 1838 trial, the court reporter quoted Reed Peck as saying Avard was a brigadier general in the Danite society, but Peck’s 1839 history states that Avard was the major general of the Danites. This later identification is consistent with the report of the 4 July 1838 celebration, which lists Avard between Jared Carter and Cornelius P. Lott. (Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [56], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes [Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838], in State of Missouri, “Evidence”; Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 48, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA; “Celebration of the 4th of July,” Elders’ Journal, Aug. 1838, 60; see also JS, Journal, 7–9 Aug. 1838.)  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  36. 36

    The last time Avard was recorded as being a leader in a Danite operation was during the 8 August 1838 confrontation at Adam Black’s home, where Avard reportedly threatened Black’s life. JS removed Avard from his command sometime after the confrontation with Black and assigned Avard the office of surgeon. (Affidavit, 5 Sept. 1838; Phelps, Reminiscences, 7–9; Sampson Avard, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [6], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes [Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838], in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”)  

    Phelps, Morris. Reminiscences, no date. CHL. MS 271.

  37. 37

    In the November 1838 trial, the court reporter quoted Reed Peck as saying that Lott was a major general in the Danite society, but Peck’s 1839 history states that Lott was the brigadier general of the Danites. This later identification is consistent with the report of the 4 July 1838 celebration, which lists Lott last, after Jared Carter and Sampson Avard. (Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [56], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes [Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838], in State of Missouri, “Evidence”; Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 45, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA; “Celebration of the 4th of July,” Elders’ Journal, Aug. 1838, 60.)  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  38. 38

    Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [56], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence”; Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 41, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  39. 39

    JS, Journal, 7–9 Aug. 1838; Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [55], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence”; Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 45, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  40. 40

    Although extant documents do not explicitly identify Wight as a colonel in the Danite society at Adam-ondi-Ahman, they clearly depict him as the leader of the Danites at that settlement. He also held a state militia commission as colonel and, like Robinson, may have held a similar position among the Danites. (Swartzell, Mormonism Exposed, 20–23, 26; JS, Journal, 7–9 Aug. 1838; Lyman Wight, Testimony, Nauvoo, IL, 1 July 1843, p. 10, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL.)  

    Swartzell, William. Mormonism Exposed, Being a Journal of a Residence in Missouri from the 28th of May to the 20th of August, 1838, Together with an Appendix, Containing the Revelation concerning the Golden Bible, with Numerous Extracts from the ‘Book of Covenants,’ &c., &c. Pekin, OH: By the author, 1840.

    Nauvoo, IL. Records, 1841–1845. CHL. MS 16800.

  41. 41

    Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [55], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”  

  42. 42

    Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [56], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”  

  43. 43

    Stout, Reminiscences, 9–10.  

    Stout, Hosea. Reminiscences and Journals, 1845–1869. Microfilm. CHL. Originals at Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City. Also available as On the Mormon Frontier: The Diary of Hosea Stout, 1844–1861, edited by Juanita Brooks, 2 vols. (1964. Reprint, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press; Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1982).

  44. 44

    JS, Journal, 27 July 1838. King Follett was identified as a “captain of 12,” which was perhaps an error, with the intended meaning a “captain of 10.” (Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [62], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes [Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838], in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”)  

  45. 45

    Swartzell, Mormonism Exposed, 23.  

    Swartzell, William. Mormonism Exposed, Being a Journal of a Residence in Missouri from the 28th of May to the 20th of August, 1838, Together with an Appendix, Containing the Revelation concerning the Golden Bible, with Numerous Extracts from the ‘Book of Covenants,’ &c., &c. Pekin, OH: By the author, 1840.

  46. 46

    See Rockwood, Journal, 22 Oct. 1838.  

    Rockwood, Albert Perry. Journal Entries, Oct. 1838–Jan. 1839. Photocopy. CHL. MS 2606.

  47. 47

    Rockwood, Journal, 22–23 Oct. 1838; Shurtliff, Autobiography, 125, 131; George M. Hinkle, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [40], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”  

    Rockwood, Albert Perry. Journal Entries, Oct. 1838–Jan. 1839. Photocopy. CHL. MS 2606.

    Shurtliff, Luman Andros. Autobiography and Journal, ca. 1852–1876. CHL. MS 1605.

  48. 48

    Sampson Avard, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [6], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, in “Evidence.”  

  49. 49

    Nathaniel Carr, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, pp. [48]–[49], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”  

  50. 50

    Rockwood, Journal, 6 and 22 Oct. 1838.  

    Rockwood, Albert Perry. Journal Entries, Oct. 1838–Jan. 1839. Photocopy. CHL. MS 2606.

  51. 51

    Morris Phelps, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [29]; Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [58]; Burr Riggs, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [76], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”  

  52. 52

    Sampson Avard, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [8]; George Walter, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [37]; George M. Hinkle, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, pp. [40]–[41], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence”; see also Rockwood, Journal, 22 Oct. 1838.  

    Rockwood, Albert Perry. Journal Entries, Oct. 1838–Jan. 1839. Photocopy. CHL. MS 2606.

  53. 53

    Charles C. Rich, Autobiographical Sketch, no date, Charles C. Rich Collection, CHL.  

    Rich, Charles C. Collection, 1832–1908. CHL. MS 889.

  54. 54

    Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” Return, Dec. 1889, 188.  

    The Return. Davis City, IA, 1889–1891; Richmond, MO, 1892–1893; Davis City, 1895–1896; Denver, 1898; Independence, MO, 1899–1900.

  55. 55

    Murdock, Journal, 1 Oct. 1838, 101.  

    Murdock, John. Journal, ca. 1830–1859. John Murdock, Journal and Autobiography, ca. 1830–1867. CHL. MS 1194, fd. 2.

  56. 56

    Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” Return, Dec. 1889, 188.  

    The Return. Davis City, IA, 1889–1891; Richmond, MO, 1892–1893; Davis City, 1895–1896; Denver, 1898; Independence, MO, 1899–1900.

  57. 57

    JS, Journal, 9 Sept. 1838.  

  58. 58

    Reed Peck, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [61], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”  

  59. 59

    Pratt, History of the Late Persecution, 33; Charles C. Rich, Statement, ca. Feb. 1845, Historian’s Office, JS History Documents, 1839–1860, CHL.  

    Historian’s Office. Joseph Smith History Documents, 1839–1860. CHL. CR 100 396.

  60. 60

    Isaac Leany, Statement, Quincy, IL, 20 Apr. 1839, photocopy, Material Relating to Mormon Expulsion from Missouri, 1839–1843, CHL.  

    Material Relating to Mormon Expulsion from Missouri, 1839–1843. Photocopy. CHL. MS 2145.

  61. 61

    Nathaniel Carr, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, p. [49], State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes (Mo. 5th Jud. Cir. 1838), in State of Missouri, “Evidence.”  

  62. 62

    George A. Smith, Autobiography, 110.  

    Smith, George A. Autobiography, ca. 1860–1882. George Albert Smith, Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322, box 1, fd. 2.

  63. 63

    Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” Return, Dec. 1889, 188.  

    The Return. Davis City, IA, 1889–1891; Richmond, MO, 1892–1893; Davis City, 1895–1896; Denver, 1898; Independence, MO, 1899–1900.