Local Church Officers

Within a few years after the church’s organization, and , Ohio, became the two approved places for church members to gather. In 1834 JS organized the presidencies and in (the church in Missouri) and the Kirtland of Zion. In Kirtland, where the members of the resided, the First Presidency served as the presidency of the stake. By the end of 1837, the First Presidency was planning to move from Kirtland to . Before they moved, they appointed a presidency for the Kirtland stake and emphasized their own role as the presidency over the entire church. Before the First Presidency arrived in Far West, the church there deposed the Zion presidency and appointed two of the resident apostles to serve as presidents pro tempore until the arrival of the First Presidency. After arriving, the First Presidency retained the new Zion presidency and reiterated the First Presidency’s role of overseeing the entire church.
In the months after the First Presidency moved to , most of the Saints also made the journey, as directed in a revelation JS dictated in January 1838. Several hundred of the migrating Saints were directed to settle at , where JS established a stake. In 1839, after the Saints were forcibly expelled from , they relocated to , Illinois, and across the in , Iowa Territory; these areas were organized into stakes by the end of the year.
Throughout the upheaval and displacement in 1838 and 1839, the church essentially maintained a pattern of two communities approved for Mormon settlement. Many of the same people served as the leaders in these gathering centers. For example, JS appointed and as members of the presidency and later appointed Smith the president of and directed Marks to preside over the church in . In May 1839, Marks was appointed president of the church in , and later that year was appointed president of the church in .
 
Kirtland Stake
The church organization at , Ohio, began disintegrating in late 1837, when several leaders dissented from the course that JS and other leaders pursued. The Kirtland further dissolved in 1838 after most loyal Latter-day Saints followed the to . Although a few leaders stayed behind to oversee stake matters and some of the other leaders were replaced, the last recorded action of the occurred in April 1838. It appears that the Kirtland presidency dissolved after left in October 1838. In May 1839, members at a general conference of the church voted that Kirtland be again considered “a stake of Zion,” and was appointed to preside. Because of widespread emigration and the lack of records, the changing leadership of the stake can be tracked only in part.
On 3 September 1837, ten men were sustained as members of the high council. The council continued to function through at least April 1838, but by that time nearly half of the council members had left for or had become members of the Kirtland presidency. As there are no extant minutes of council meetings in 1838, there is no evidence that additional counselors were called to replace those who left for Missouri.
Presidency
President Counselors
(appointed January 1838; departed October 1838) (appointed January 1838; departed 5 April 1838)
(appointed 4 May 1839; certified 6 May 1839) (appointed January 1838; departed circa March 1838)
[Hugh?] Cole (appointed by 22 July 1838)
Hiram Kellogg (appointed by 22 July 1838)
 
High Council
Counselors
(in by April 1838)
(in by October 1839)
(departed circa late April 1838)
(departed after August 1838)
(appointed president over , 4 May 1839)
(in by December 1838)
(departed circa late April 1838)
(departed for 16 November 1837)
(in by late summer 1838)
(departed circa late April 1838)
 
Bishop
(departed fall 1838)
 
President of the High Priests Quorum
(appointed 15 January 1836; departed between 12 January and 7 May 1838)
Hiram Kellogg (appointed by 10 June 1838)
 
Presidency of the Elders Quorum
President
(appointed between 22 January and 26 February 1838; released 17 June 1838)
(appointed 10 June 1838)
First Counselor
(appointed before 26 February 1838; appointed president 10 June 1838)
Hezekiah Fisk (appointed 8 July 1838; departed before summer 1839)
Counselor (unknown whether first or second)
Martin H. Peck (appointed 26 February 1838; departed 5 July 1838)
Second Counselor
Lahasa Hollister (appointed 8 July 1838)
 
Zion
In 1834, was appointed president of the church in (), with and as assistant presidents. In early February 1838, the presidency members were removed from office by a “general assembly” of the church, and resident apostles and were appointed presidents pro tempore. When Phelps and John Whitmer were assistants to David Whitmer, they were also called presidents. Similarly, the minutes of a 10 February 1838 council meeting designate both Marsh and Patten as “Presidents, pro. tempor,” but it was probably understood that Marsh, the president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, was the preeminent president and Patten was his assistant. On 6 April, a few weeks after JS and apostle arrived in (the center of Zion in 1838), the church in Zion appointed Marsh “President pro tempore of the Church in Zion,” with Patten and Young as “his assistant presidents.” Marsh, Patten, and Young were the three most senior apostles. On 8 July 1838, JS dictated a revelation that appointed , who was then in , to preside over the Saints in Far West. Marks, however, did not arrive in Missouri prior to the armed conflict with other Missourians that erupted in fall 1838 and was therefore never ordained to the position. In late October 1838, during the height of the conflict, Marsh defected and Patten was killed, leaving only Young in the presidency. On 16 January 1839, Young met with the Zion for the last time on record, presumably because on the same day, the wrote a letter directing the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles to take charge of the church since “the gathering of necessity [had] stopt.” The Missouri Saints were emigrating from the state, and the organization of Zion was being dissolved. Shortly thereafter, the high council was effectively replaced by a committee directing the evacuation effort, further indicating that the usual church leadership structure in Zion was being disbanded.
The high council consisted of twelve high counselors. , as the oldest member of the council, was designated its president in 1836 and continued in this role until being released on 6 October 1838. On 12 April 1838, the council clarified that the president was “to receive charges and give notice to the defendant, also, to call the Council together and organize them.” The president of the high council presided at council meetings except when a member of the Zion presidency or JS was present and presided. As counselors moved away from , they were released and other men were called in their stead. Clerk was also replaced because of dissension, which ultimately led to his excommunication. Substitutes also served frequently in the place of permanent counselors who were unavailable. When Murdock was released because he had moved to to help establish a new Mormon settlement there, was appointed to the council and may have been designated president because he was the oldest high counselor. After the Saints were driven from De Witt, Murdock rejoined the high council. The last recorded meeting of the Zion high council occurred on 16 January 1839.
, who had been president of the quorum of in , followed JS in migrating to . In October 1839, he was sustained as president of the quorum in at a general church conference in , Illinois, suggesting that he replaced after arriving in Far West, possibly between 6 and 8 July 1838. Smith served a fund-raising mission from September to December 1838.
By 15 March 1838, Bishop received authorization from the high council to organize the Aaronic, or lesser, priesthood quorums in . As bishop, Partridge had authority to preside over the priests quorum. Additionally, as in 1836, a member of the quorum may have been appointed as a president of the quorum. Whereas extant records identify the president of the teachers quorum, extant sources do not name the president of the deacons quorum.
 
Presidency
7 July 1834–9 February 1838 10 February–6 April 1838 6 April–circa 20 October 1838 25 October 1838–16 January 1839
President Presidents pro Tempore President pro Tempore Acting President
(possible served as an assistant to Marsh)
Assistant Presidents Assistant Presidents
 
High Council
By 7 November 1837 6 April 1838 7 April 18386 October 183813 December 183816 January 1838
President President PresidentPresidentPresidentPresident
???
Counselors Counselors CounselorsCounselorsCounselorsCounselors
John BadgerJohn Badger
ClerkClerkClerkClerkClerkClerk
 
Bishopric
Bishop
(appointed February 1831; sustained 7 November 1837)
Counselors
(appointed 3 June 1831; sustained 7 November 1837)
(appointed 1 August 1837; sustained 7 November 1837)
Keeper of the Lord’s Storehouse
(appointed 22 May 1837; disaffected October 1838)
 
Other Known Melchizedek Priesthood Leaders
Patriarch
(appointed 7 November 1837)
Presidency of High Priests Quorum
, president (appointed by 20 August 1837)
?, president (possibly appointed between 6 and 8 July 1838)
, counselor (date of appointment unknown; until 6 October 1838)
President of Elders Quorum
Harvey Green (appointed between 20 August 1837–not after 6 October 1838)
Stephen Chase (appointed 6 October 1838)
 
Other Known Aaronic Priesthood Leaders
President of Priests Quorum
President of Teachers Quorum
(appointed 15 March 1838)
 
Licensing Officers
6 December 1837–10 February 1838 10 February 1838–8 April 1838
Chairman Chairman
(possibly)
Chairman pro Tempore
Clerk Clerk
(possibly)
Clerk pro Tempore
Recording Clerk
 
Other Officers
Clerk and Recorder
(appointed 6 April 1838)
Recorder of Patriarchal Blessings
(appointed 6 December 1837; excommunicated 12 April 1838)
(appointed spring 1838; appointment rescinded 16 January 1839)
 
Adam-ondi-Ahman Stake
As , Missouri, filled with Latter-day Saints, immigration was steered northward to , Daviess County, Missouri, where a was organized on 28 June 1838. Because stake records are not extant, little is known regarding leadership changes before the stake was dissolved in mid-November 1838, when the state militia forcibly evacuated the Latter-day Saints from the .
Presidency
President
First Counselor
Second Counselor
 
High Council
John Lemon (excommunicated 10 August 1838)
Daniel Carter
Isaac Perry
Alanson Brown
Harvey Olmstead
 
Bishop pro Tempore
 
De Witt Stake
On 23 June 1838, and , two members of the , purchased half of the lots in the town plat of , Carroll County, Missouri, under the direction of the high council and JS. Shortly afterward, Hinkle and Murdock relocated there with their families. Church member later reported that the intended to make De Witt “the fourth ‘Stake of Zion,’” after , , and . On 17 September, JS and wrote a letter stating that De Witt had been recently appointed a . Though designated as a stake, De Witt was apparently never formally organized with a presidency, high council, bishopric, or other stake officers. Charles H. Hales, a Latter-day Saint living in De Witt, later wrote that George M. Hinkle served as the “president of the ” at De Witt.
 
Removal and Settlement Committees
Of the several ad hoc committees established throughout the period covered in this volume, two were especially important: (1) the committee that supervised the evacuation of the Latter-day Saints from and (2) the committee that helped the Saints resettle in . These committees served as interim organizations for the church after the Saints were forced from their homes in Missouri and before they established new settlements in Illinois.
 
Removal Committee (29 January–14 April 1839)
29 January 1839 1 February 1839
Charles Bird Charles Bird
Daniel Shearer Daniel Shearer
Erastus Bingham
 
Settlement Committee (circa January 1839–circa March 1839)
(became sick and never served)
 
Commerce
Following the Saints’ expulsion from in spring 1839, they regrouped in . After JS escaped from state custody and arrived in Illinois in April 1839, he began to reorganize the Saints at (later ), Illinois, and across the river in . On 6 May 1839, members at a church conference appointed a president and bishop—the two essential positions of organization—for the church members in Commerce. Commerce was formally organized as a stake in October 1839.
President
Bishop
  1. 1

    Minutes, 17 Feb. 1834; Minutes, 3 July 1834; Minutes and Discourse, ca. 7 July 1834.  

  2. 2

    See, for example, Minute Book 1, 16 Mar. and 16 Sept. 1835; 16 June 1836; 11 May 1837.  

  3. 3

    John Smith and Clarissa Lyman Smith, Kirtland, OH, to George A. Smith, Shinnston, VA, 1 Jan. 1838, George Albert Smith, Papers, CHL; Hepzibah Richards, Kirtland, OH, to Willard Richards, Bedford, England, 18–19 Jan. 1838, Willard Richards, Papers, CHL.  

    Smith, George Albert. Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322.

    Richards, Willard. Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490.

  4. 4

    Letter to John Corrill and the Church in Missouri, 4 Sept. 1837; Hepzibah Richards, Kirtland, OH, to Willard Richards, Bedford, England, 18–19 Jan. 1838, Willard Richards, Papers, CHL.  

    Richards, Willard. Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490.

  5. 5

    Letter from Thomas B. Marsh, 15 Feb. 1838.  

  6. 6

    Minutes, 6 Apr. 1838; Letter to John Whitmer, 9 Apr. 1838.  

  7. 7

    Revelation, 12 Jan. 1838–C.  

  8. 8

    See Tyler, Journal, 4 Oct. 1838; Backman, Heavens Resound, 352–367; JS, Journal, 18 May–1 June 1838; and Minutes, 28 June 1838.  

    Tyler, Samuel D. Journal, July–Oct. 1838. CHL. MS 1761.

    Backman, Milton V., Jr. The Heavens Resound: A History of the Latter-day Saints in Ohio, 1830–1838. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1983.

  9. 9

    Minutes, 5–7 Oct. 1839.  

  10. 10

    John Smith and Clarissa Lyman Smith, Kirtland, OH, to George A. Smith, Shinnston, VA, 1 Jan. 1838, George Albert Smith, Papers, CHL; Hepzibah Richards, Kirtland, OH, to Willard Richards, Bedford, England, 18–19 Jan. 1838, Willard Richards, Papers, CHL.  

    Smith, George Albert. Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322.

    Richards, Willard. Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490.

  11. 11

    Minutes, 28 June 1838; Revelation, 8 July 1838–E [D&C 117:10].  

  12. 12

    Minutes, 6 May 1839.  

  13. 13

    Minutes, 5–7 Oct. 1839.  

  14. 14

    See Kirtland Camp, Journal, Mar.–Oct. 1838; JS, Journal, 7 May 1838; and John Smith, Journal, 16 and 17 June 1838.  

    Kirtland Camp. Journal, Mar.–Oct. 1838. CHL. MS 4952.

    Smith, John (1781-1854). Journal, 1833–1841. John Smith, Papers, 1833-1854. CHL. MS 1326, box 1, fd. 1.

  15. 15

    Quorums of the Seventy, “Book of Records,” 51–52; Geauga Co., OH, Deed Record, 1795–1921, vol. 27, pp. 149–150, 1 Oct. 1838, microfilm 20,242, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; Letter from William Perkins, 29 Oct. 1838.  

    Record of Seventies / First Council of the Seventy. “Book of Records,” 1837–1843. Bk. A. In First Council of the Seventy, Records, 1837–1885. CHL. CR 3 51, box 1, fd. 1.

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  16. 16

    Minutes, 4–5 May 1839.  

  17. 17

    Quorums of the Seventy, “Book of Records,” 51–52.  

    Record of Seventies / First Council of the Seventy. “Book of Records,” 1837–1843. Bk. A. In First Council of the Seventy, Records, 1837–1885. CHL. CR 3 51, box 1, fd. 1.

  18. 18

    John Smith and Clarissa Lyman Smith, Kirtland, OH, to George A. Smith, Shinnston, VA, 1 Jan. 1838, George Albert Smith, Papers, CHL; Hepzibah Richards, Kirtland, OH, to Willard Richards, Bedford, England, 18–19 Jan. 1838, Willard Richards, Papers, CHL; Geauga Co., OH, Deed Record, 1795–1921, vol. 27, pp. 149–150, 1 Oct. 1838, microfilm 20,242, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; Letter from William Perkins, 29 Oct. 1838.  

    Smith, George Albert. Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322.

    Richards, Willard. Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490.

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  19. 19

    John Smith and Clarissa Lyman Smith, Kirtland, OH, to George A. Smith, Shinnston, VA, 1 Jan. 1838, George Albert Smith, Papers, CHL; Hepzibah Richards, Kirtland, OH, to Willard Richards, Bedford, England, 18–19 Jan. 1838, Willard Richards, Papers, CHL; John Smith, Journal, 5 Apr. 1838.  

    Smith, George Albert. Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322.

    Richards, Willard. Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490.

    Smith, John (1781-1854). Journal, 1833–1841. John Smith, Papers, 1833-1854. CHL. MS 1326, box 1, fd. 1.

  20. 20

    Minutes, 4–5 May 1839; Authorization for Oliver Granger, 6 May 1839.  

  21. 21

    John Smith and Clarissa Lyman Smith, Kirtland, OH, to George A. Smith, Shinnston, VA, 1 Jan. 1838, George Albert Smith, Papers, CHL; Hepzibah Richards, Kirtland, OH, to Willard Richards, Bedford, England, 18–19 Jan. 1838, Willard Richards, Papers, CHL; Cahoon, Autobiography, 42; JS, Journal, 7 May 1838.  

    Smith, George Albert. Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322.

    Richards, Willard. Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490.

    Cahoon, William F. Autobiography, 1878. Microfilm. CHL. MS 8433.

  22. 22

    The 22 July 1838 entry in the Kirtland elders quorum record book mentions a “Counselor Cole . . . of the Presidency of the Church” but does not include his given name. This counselor may have been Hugh Cole, who was mentioned in the minutes of an 1841 conference held in Kirtland. (Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 22 July 1838.)  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  23. 23

    Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 22 July 1838.  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  24. 24

    Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 22 July 1838.  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  25. 25

    Minutes, 7–8 Apr. 1838.  

  26. 26

    Minutes, 5–7 Oct. 1839.  

  27. 27

    Kirtland Camp, Journal, 20 Mar. 1838; Minutes, 28 June 1838.  

    Kirtland Camp. Journal, Mar.–Oct. 1838. CHL. MS 4952.

  28. 28

    Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 26 Aug. 1838; Packard, “Life and Travels,” 4.  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

    “A Synopsis of the Life and Travels of Noah Packard Written by Himself,” between 1858 and 1860. Typescript. BYU.

  29. 29

    Minutes, 4–5 May 1839.  

  30. 30

    Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838.  

  31. 31

    Lyman Sherman, Promissory Notes, Apr. 1838, CHL.  

    Sherman, Lyman Royal. Promissory Notes, Apr. 1838. CHL.

  32. 32

    Phineas Richards, Journal, [8].  

  33. 33

    Citizens of De Witt, MO, Petition to Lilburn W. Boggs, Jefferson City, MO, 22 Sept. 1838, copy, Mormon War Papers, MSA.  

    Mormon War Papers, 1838–1841. MSA.

  34. 34

    Kirtland Camp, Journal, 20 Mar. 1838; JS Journal, 14 May 1838.  

    Kirtland Camp. Journal, Mar.–Oct. 1838. CHL. MS 4952.

  35. 35

    Minutes, 3 Sept. 1837.  

  36. 36

    [Elizabeth Ann Smith Whitney], “A Leaf from an Autobiography,” Woman’s Exponent, 15 Nov. 1878, 91.  

    Woman’s Exponent. Salt Lake City. 1872–1914.

  37. 37

    Minute Book 1, 15 Jan. 1836; JS, Journal, 15 Jan. 1836; Lucy Mack Smith, History, 1844–1845, bk. 15, p. [2]; Letter from Don Carlos Smith, ca. Late May 1838.  

  38. 38

    Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 10 June 1838; 8 Jan. 1841.  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  39. 39

    Hedlock was listed as president pro tempore in two January 1838 entries in the Kirtland elders quorum record book. On 26 February 1838, he appointed a new counselor, suggesting that the presidency had been formally reestablished by that date. No further entries mention pro tempore status. (Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 22 and 29 Jan. 1838; 26 Feb. 1838.)  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  40. 40

    Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 17 June 1838.  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  41. 41

    Although Morton was appointed on 10 June, he was not ordained until 17 June. (Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 10 and 17 June 1838.)  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  42. 42

    When the presidency was formed in 1836, Morton was second counselor. With the death of Alvah Beman in November 1837, first counselor Reuben Hedlock became acting president and Morton presumably acted as first counselor. Hedlock was appointed the official president sometime before 26 February 1838, at which time Morton presumably was officially appointed first counselor. (JS, Journal, 28 Jan. 1836; Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 22 and 29 Jan. 1838; 26 Feb. 1838; 10 and 17 June 1838.)  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  43. 43

    Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 8 July 1838. It is unknown when the Fisk family left Kirtland; however, the family was apparently living in Commerce, Illinois, by July 1839, when Hezekiah Fisk’s granddaughter and son died. Fisk died at Commerce on 9 November 1839. (“Obituary,” Times and Seasons, Dec. 1839, 1:32.)  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  44. 44

    Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 26 Feb. 1838; Kirtland Camp Constitution, 13 Mar. 1838, CHL; Kirtland Camp, Journal, 5 July 1838.  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

    Kirtland Camp. Constitution, 13 Mar. 1838. CHL. MS 4952.

    Kirtland Camp. Journal, Mar.–Oct. 1838. CHL. MS 4952.

  45. 45

    Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 8 July 1838; 8 Jan. 1841.  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  46. 46

    Minutes, 3 July 1834; Minutes and Discourse, ca. 7 July 1834.  

  47. 47

    Letter from Thomas B. Marsh, 15 Feb. 1838.  

  48. 48

    Minutes, 6 Apr. 1838. Ebenezer Robinson’s minutes of the 6 April meeting list Young ahead of Patten. However, Patten was already serving with Marsh in the pro tempore Zion presidency, was older than Young, and was Young’s senior in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. George W. Robinson’s minutes in JS’s “Scriptory Book” list Patten and then Young. George W. Robinson’s minutes were apparently more accurate than Ebenezer Robinson’s minutes, as was the case with the former’s minutes of his own appointment as general church clerk and recorder. In addition, Patten was listed ahead of Young in the minutes of subsequent meetings. (Minute Book 2, 6–8 and 13 Apr. 1838; Minutes, 6 Apr. 1838, in JS, Journal, Mar.–Sept. 1838, 29.)  

  49. 49

    Revelation, 8 July 1838–E [D&C 117:10].  

  50. 50

    Revelation, 8 July 1838–E [D&C 117:10]; Geauga Co., OH, Deed Record, 1795–1921, vol. 27, pp. 149–150, 1 Oct. 1838, microfilm 20,242, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; Letter from William Perkins, 29 Oct. 1838.  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  51. 51

    Rockwood, Journal, 21 Oct. 1838; Thomas B. Marsh and Orson Hyde, Affidavit, Richmond, MO, 24 Oct. 1838, copy, Mormon War Papers, MSA; Thomas B. Marsh and Orson Hyde, Richmond, MO, to Lewis and Ann Marsh Abbott, Far West, MO, 25–30 Oct. 1838, in JS Letterbook 2, pp. 18–19; Pratt, History of the Late Persecution, 36.  

    Rockwood, Albert Perry. Journal Entries, Oct. 1838–Jan. 1839. Photocopy. CHL. MS 2606.

    Mormon War Papers, 1838–1841. MSA.

  52. 52

    Minute Book 2, 16 Jan. 1839.  

  53. 53

    Letter to Heber C. Kimball and Brigham Young, 16 Jan. 1839. Young presumably received the letter a few days later.  

  54. 54

    Far West Committee, Minutes, 26 Jan. 1839.  

    Far West Committee. Minutes, Jan.–Apr. 1839. CHL. MS 2564.

  55. 55

    See JS, Journal, 21 Jan. 1836; Partridge, Journal, 21 Jan. 1836; Murdock, Journal, 3 Mar. 1836, 81; Murdock, Autobiography, 34, 36, 37; and Minute Book 2, 5–6 Oct. 1838.  

    Partridge, Edward. Journal, Jan. 1835–July 1836. Edward Partridge, Papers, 1818–1839. CHL. MS 892, box 1, fd. 2.

    Murdock, John. Journal, ca. 1830–1859. John Murdock, Journal and Autobiography, ca. 1830–1867. CHL. MS 1194, fd. 2.

    Murdock, John. Autobiography, ca. 1859–1867. John Murdock, Journal and Autobiography, ca. 1830–1867. CHL. MS 1194, fd. 4.

  56. 56

    Minutes, 12 Apr. 1838.  

  57. 57

    See Letter from Thomas B. Marsh, 15 Feb. 1838; Minutes, 15 Mar. 1838; and Minute Book 2, 31 Aug. 1838.  

  58. 58

    Minute Book 2, 5–6 Oct. 1838.  

  59. 59

    Minute Book 2, 16 Jan. 1839.  

  60. 60

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 26 Jan. 1838; 5–6 Oct. 1838; 13 Dec. 1838; 16 Jan. 1839.  

  61. 61

    Minute Book 2, 5–6 Oct. 1838 and 16 Jan. 1839.  

  62. 62

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 16 Jan. 1839.  

  63. 63

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838; Letter from Elias Higbee, 16 Apr. 1839.  

  64. 64

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minutes, 7–8 Apr. 1838.  

  65. 65

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838; Lorenzo D. Young, Statement, ca. 1894, CHL.  

    Young, Lorenzo D. Statement, ca. 1894. CHL.

  66. 66

    Grover did not attend any meetings after 13 Dec. 1838, but he was not released by the final meeting on 16 January 1839. He was still in Far West on 29 January 1839, when he was placed on the committee to move Saints from Missouri. (Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838; 16 Jan. 1839; Far West Committee, Minutes, 29 Jan. 1839.)  

    Far West Committee. Minutes, Jan.–Apr. 1839. CHL. MS 2564.

  67. 67

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 16 Jan. 1839.  

  68. 68

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minutes, 7–8 Apr. 1838.  

  69. 69

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838.  

  70. 70

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 5–6 Oct. 1838.  

  71. 71

    Although Jackman did not attend any meetings after 13 December 1838, he was not replaced by the final meeting on 16 January 1839. (Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838 and 16 Jan. 1839.)  

  72. 72

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837; Minutes, 7–8 Apr. 1838.  

  73. 73

    Minutes, 7–8 Apr. 1838; Minute Book 2, 16 Jan. 1839.  

  74. 74

    Minutes, 7–8 Apr. 1838; Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838; John P. Greene, Diary Entries, 1–16 Nov. 1838, CHL.  

    Greene, John P. Diary Entries. 1–16 Nov. 1848. CHL.

  75. 75

    Minutes, 7–8 Apr. 1838; Minute Book 2, 16 Jan. 1839.  

  76. 76

    Higbee did not attend any meetings following his 6 October 1838 appointment, but he was not replaced by the final meeting on 16 January 1839. (Minute Book 2, 5–6 Oct. 1838 and 16 Jan. 1839.)  

  77. 77

    Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838.  

  78. 78

    Although Dort was not present at the final meeting on 16 January 1839, he apparently was still considered a council member. (Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838 and 16 Jan. 1839.)  

  79. 79

    Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838 and 16 Jan. 1839.  

  80. 80

    Sherman’s appointment was evidently temporary, contingent upon the return of Newel Knight. Sherman evidently did not attend any other meetings of the high council prior to the final meeting on 16 January 1839, but he was not replaced and Knight did not return. (Minute Book 2, 13 Dec. 1838 and 16 Jan. 1839.)  

  81. 81

    Revelation, 4 Feb. 1831 [D&C 41:9]; Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837.  

  82. 82

    Minute Book 2, 3 June 1831; Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837.  

  83. 83

    Minute Book 2, 1 and 5 Aug. 1837; Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837.  

  84. 84

    Minute Book 2, 22 May and 6–7 Dec. 1837; Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837.  

  85. 85

    Minutes, 7 Nov. 1837.  

  86. 86

    Certificate for Charles C. Rich and Harvey Green, 20 Aug. 1837, in Minute Book 2, p. 80; Certificate for Charles C. Rich, no date, Charles C. Rich Collection, CHL.  

    Rich, Charles C. Collection, 1832–1908. CHL. MS 889.

  87. 87

    Smith, who had been president of the quorum of high priests in Kirtland, followed JS in migrating to Far West. In Oct. 1839, he was sustained as president of the quorum in Zion at a general church conference in Commerce, Illinois, suggesting that he replaced Rich after arriving in Far West, possibly between 6 and 8 July 1838. Smith served a fund-raising mission from Sept. to Dec. 1838. (Minutes, 5–7 Oct. 1839; JS, Journal, 6 July 1838; Deed to Samuel F. Whitney, 8 July 1838.)  

  88. 88

    Certificate for Charles C. Rich, no date, Charles C. Rich Collection, CHL. Samuel Bent joined the high council on 6 October 1838. (Minute Book 2, 5–6 Oct. 1838.)  

    Rich, Charles C. Collection, 1832–1908. CHL. MS 889.

  89. 89

    Certificate for Charles C. Rich and Harvey Green, 20 Aug. 1837, in Minute Book 2, p. 80.  

  90. 90

    Minute Book 2, 5–6 Oct. 1838.  

  91. 91

    As bishop, Edward Partridge presided over the priests quorum. (Instruction on Priesthood, between ca. 1 Mar. and ca. 4 May 1835 [D&C 107:87–88]; Teachers Quorum, Minutes, 15 Mar. 1838.)  

    Teachers Quorum. Minutes, 1834–1845. CHL. MS 3428.

  92. 92

    Teachers Quorum, Minutes, 15 Mar. 1838.  

    Teachers Quorum. Minutes, 1834–1845. CHL. MS 3428.

  93. 93

    Minute Book 2, 6–7 Dec. 1837; Letter from Thomas B. Marsh, 15 Feb. 1838.  

  94. 94

    Letter from Thomas B. Marsh, 15 Feb. 1838; Minutes, 7–8 Apr. 1838.  

  95. 95

    Minutes, 6 Apr. 1838; see also Minutes, 6 Apr. 1838, in JS, Journal, Mar.–Sept. 1838, 29.  

  96. 96

    Minute Book 2, 6–7 Dec. 1837; Minutes, 12 Apr. 1838.  

  97. 97

    Minute Book 2, 16 Jan. 1839.  

  98. 98

    Minutes, 28 June 1838.  

  99. 99

    Robert Wilson, Adam-ondi-Ahman, MO, to John B. Clark, Richmond, MO, 14 Nov. 1838, copy, Mormon War Papers, MSA; Baugh, “Call to Arms,” 349–359.  

    Mormon War Papers, 1838–1841. MSA.

    Baugh, Alexander L. “A Call to Arms: The 1838 Mormon Defense of Northern Missouri.” PhD diss., Brigham Young University, 1996. Also available as A Call to Arms: The 1838 Mormon Defense of Northern Missouri, Dissertations in Latter-day Saint History (Provo, UT: Joseph Fielding Smith Institute for Latter-day Saint History; BYU Studies, 2000).

  100. 100

    Minutes, 28 June 1838.  

  101. 101

    Minutes, 28 June 1838.  

  102. 102

    Swartzell, Mormonism Exposed, 31–32.  

    Swartzell, William. Mormonism Exposed, Being a Journal of a Residence in Missouri from the 28th of May to the 20th of August, 1838, Together with an Appendix, Containing the Revelation concerning the Golden Bible, with Numerous Extracts from the ‘Book of Covenants,’ &c., &c. Pekin, OH: By the author, 1840.

  103. 103

    Minutes, 28 June 1838. Knight was received “into the Church in full Bishopric” at the May 1839 general conference of the church. (Minutes, 4–5 May 1839.)  

  104. 104

    Murdock, Autobiography, 37.  

    Murdock, John. Autobiography, ca. 1859–1867. John Murdock, Journal and Autobiography, ca. 1830–1867. CHL. MS 1194, fd. 4.

  105. 105

    Reed Peck, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, pp. 20–21, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  106. 106

    Letter to Stephen Post, 17 Sept. 1838; see also Rockwood, Journal, 14 Oct. 1838.  

    Rockwood, Albert Perry. Journal Entries, Oct. 1838–Jan. 1839. Photocopy. CHL. MS 2606.

  107. 107

    “The Biography of Charles H. Hales No 45,” in “Biographies of the Seventies of the Second Quorum,” 208.  

    “Biographies of the Seventies of the Second Quorum,” 1845–1855. In Seventies Quorum Records, 1844–1975. CHL. CR 499.

  108. 108

    Far West Committee, Minutes, 29 Jan–14 Apr. 1839.  

    Far West Committee. Minutes, Jan.–Apr. 1839. CHL. MS 2564.

  109. 109

    Far West Committee, Minutes, 29 Jan. 1839.  

    Far West Committee. Minutes, Jan.–Apr. 1839. CHL. MS 2564.

  110. 110

    Far West Committee, Minutes, 1 Feb. 1839.  

    Far West Committee. Minutes, Jan.–Apr. 1839. CHL. MS 2564.

  111. 111

    Rogers, Statement, [1], CHL; Far West Committee, Minutes, 17 Mar. 1839; Hyrum Smith, Liberty, MO, to Mary Fielding Smith, Quincy, IL, 19 Mar. 1839, Mary Fielding Smith Collection, CHL.  

    Rogers, David W. Statement, [not before 1846]. CHL.

    Far West Committee. Minutes, Jan.–Apr. 1839. CHL. MS 2564.

    Smith, Mary Fielding. Collection, ca. 1832–1848. CHL. MS 2779.

  112. 112

    Rogers, Statement, [1], CHL.  

    Rogers, David W. Statement, [not before 1846]. CHL.

  113. 113

    Minutes, 6 May 1839.  

  114. 114

    Minutes, 6 May 1839.  

  115. 115

    Minutes, 6 May 1839. The minutes called for Whitney to “act in unison with the other Bishops of the Church,” suggesting Whitney was not appointed to be the bishop for the whole community but was to share his duties with the other bishops, Edward Partridge and Vinson Knight.